Enzymes in respiration, other uses Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Enzymes in respiration, other uses Deck (32):
1

... involves many reactions catalysed by....

Respiration involves many reactions catalysed by enzymes.

2

What does respiration release that we need..

ENERGY!

3

Describe the process of respiration...
All ... respire.

It is the process of releasing energy from the breakdown of glucose - it goes on in every cell in the body, and in plants.
All living things respire.

4

How do living things release energy from glucose (food)?
Where does most of this happen?

Respiration.
Inside the mitochondria.

5

What does aerobic respiration need?

Plenty of oxygen.

6

What is the most efficient way of releasing energy from glucose?
When does this go on in plants and animals?

Aerobic respiration happens all the time.

7

What is the word equation for respiration?

Glucose + oxygen - Carbon dioxide + water ENERGY

8

Give 4 examples of what energy released in respiration is used for?

1. To build up large molecules from small ones, e.g proteins from amino acids
2. (In animals) Allow the muscles to contract - move
3. In mammals and birds the energy is used to keep the body temperature steady and warm
4. In plants - to build sugars, nitrates and other nutrients into amino acids, which are then built into amino acids 1.

9

How does your body adapt when doing exercise?

It makes sure your muscles get more glucose and more oxygen, to provide your muscles with more energy.

10

What increases the heart rate?

Exercise

11

What are muscles made of?

Muscle cells!

12

Muscles cells use what to release energy from glucose, aerobic respiration, to do what to the muscles?

oxygen
contract them

13

Why does blood have to flow faster during exercise?
Muscle activity.
Supply
Removal

The increase in muscle activity requires more glucose and and oxygen to be supplied to the muscle cells.
Extra CO2 therefore needs removed so the blood flows faster to provide and remove.

14

What does physical activity do?
Breathing
Blood flow

Increases your breathing rate and makes you breath more deeply to meet the extra demand for oxygen.
Increases the speed at which your heart pumps.

15

What else is stored and used during exercise?

Glycogen is stored glucose.

16

Where is glycogen mainly stored, and where else?

In the liver, but each muscle has its own store

17

What is the glycogen used for during exercise?

When glucose is used rapidly some of the stored glycogen is converted back to glucose to provide more energy.

18

What happens if there is not enough oxygen, to supply the muscles during vigorous exercise? (respiration types)

Anaerobic respiration takes place instead of aerobic.

19

What does anaerobic mean?
What is anaerobic respiration and the equation?

Without oxygen.
The incomplete breakdown of glucose producing lactic acid.
Glucose - energy and lactic acid

20

What are the two problems with lactic acid?
What other problem?

1. It builds up in the muscles which is painful
2. It also causes muscle fatigue where they get tired and stop contacting efficiently.
It does not release as much energy as aerobic respiration.

21

What is the main advantage to anaerobically respiring during exercise?

It's useful in emergencies because you can keep using your muscles for a little longer.

22

What does anaerobic respiration lead to after you stop exercising?

Oxygen debt

23

What is oxygen debt?

When you have to repay the oxygen you didn't get to your muscles in time, because your heart, lungs and blood couldn't keep up with the demand.

24

Why do you keep breathing hard when you have oxygen debt?

So that you get more oxygen into the blood to flow through the muscles to remove the lactic acid by oxidising it into harmless CO2 and water.

25

How does the brain react to the high levels of CO2 and lactic acid during the repaying stage?

It keeps the pulse and breathing rate high to rectify the situation.

26

Some .... produce ... which pass out of of their cells and catalyse reactions outside them. These ... are used in the home and ... .

Some microorganisms produce enzymes which pass out of of their cells and catalyse reactions outside them. These enzymes are used in the home and industry .

27

Enzymes are used for two things, one in the home, one in industry...

Biological detergents
To change foods

28

What are the enzymes used in biological washing powders and detergents?

Protein digesting enzymes - proteases and fat digesting enzymes - lipases.

29

What are the biological detergents good for breaking down?
What else is good? (o)

Animal and plant matter, like stains of blood or food.
They work best at 30, a low temperature, which is better for the environment.

30

What are food enzymes used for?
Babies
Carb
Weight

Pre-digesting their food using proteases to break down the proteins, so it's easier for the babies to digest them.

Carbohydrate digesting enzymes, carbohydrases, are used to turn starch syrup into sugar syrup.

Glucose syrup can be turned into fructose syrup using isomerase enzymes. Fructose is sweeter so you can use less of it which is good for weight watcher products.

31

Why are enzymes useful in industry? 2)
Specific...
Time
Environment

They don't need high temperatures or pressures which is lower cost and saves energy.
They only catalyse one reaction meaning they'll only catalyse what you want them to...
They work for a long time so after buying them you can continually use them.
Biodegradable therefore cause less environmental pollution.

32

What are the disadvantages of enzymes in industry?
Allergies
Susceptible - this means...
Money
Reaction

Some people can develop allergies e.g to washing powders
Can be denatured by even a small change in temp, pH, and susceptible to poisons - the conditions need to be tightly controlled.
Expensive
Contamination of the enzyme with another substance can affect the reaction.