Stem cells and X and Y chromosomes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Stem cells and X and Y chromosomes Deck (18):

What can embryonic stem cells do?

Turn into any type of cell


What is differentiation?

The process by which a cell changes to become specialised


In most animal cells the ability to ... is lost at an ... but lots of ... cells don't ever lose this ability.

differentiate, early stage, plant


Stem cells are...
They can develop into .... depending on what instructions they are given.

different types of cells
Undifferentiated cell = differentiated white blood cell.


Where are stem cells found?

Human embryos


Why are they exciting to doctors?

They have the potential to turn into any kind of cell.


Do adults have stem cells?
Where are they?

Yes, but only in certain places, like bone marrow. They aren't as versatile, they can only change into certain cell types.


Stem cells may be able to cure...
How is this already used?

Doctors already cure blood diseases by doing bone marrow transplants, sickle celled anemia, replacing the faulty cells with working ones.


How do scientists get stem cells?

By extracting them from embryos


What are the potential benefits of SC, e.g, for sick people?

The stem cells could replace faulty cells, make beating heart muscles for heart disease, insulin producing cells, for diabetes, nerve cells for spinal injuries.


How are scientists trying to control which types of cell is formed from SC?

By changing and controlling their environment they're grown in.


Give reasons why people are against stem cell research...
But... which is supported by the fact that...
What do they think scientists should do instead of using human embryos.

What are the regulations like?

They say embryos shouldn't be used as they are a potential life.
But curing a life that exists and is suffering is more important than he rights of embryos.
the embryos used are usually unwanted anyway from fertility clinics, and would be destroyed anyway, but campaigns also want this to stop too.
Find other sources of stem cells.
In some countries research is banned but in the UK there are strict guidelines.


How many matched pairs of chromosomes are there in every human?



What is the 23rd pair of chromosomes?

The two chromosomes that decide your gender, labeled, xx, or xy


All men have which chromosomes, what does the second one do?

XY, Y causes male characteristics


All women have which chromosome pair?

XX, causes female characteristics to develop


What are the chances of being female or male due to meiosis?



How can you work out the possible combination of gametes and probability?

Genetic diagrams