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Flashcards in Epi Final Deck (86)
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1

Purpose of Analytical Studies?

(2)

  • ID & explain the cause of dz
  • numerically assess risk factors

2

3 parts of an Analytical Study?

  1. Data collection
  2. Data analysis
  3. Data interpretation

3

Study type that compares dz occurrence between "exposed" & "non-exposed"

Cohort study

4

2 Strengths of Cohort Studies

  • Rare exposure
  • can examine multiple outcomes of a single exposure

5

Weaknesses of Cohort Study

(2)

  • Not good for rare dz.
  • time consuming if there is a long period between exposure & dz.

6

Prospective Cohort follows groups from _______ to ________.

present to future

7

Strengths of Prospective Cohorts

(3)

  • measure Incidence
  • describes temporal relationships
  • collect data on possible confounders

8

Weaknesses of Prospective Cohorts?

(3)

  • Expensive & long
  • Lack of follow-up can affect validity
  • Requires a large # of subjects

9

Retrospective Cohort follows subjects from _______ to _______.

present to past

10

Strengths of Retrospective Cohorts

(3)

  • data is already present
  • cheap
  • easy to perform

11

Weaknesses of Retrospective Cohorts

(2)

  • Need good records → confounders
  • Selection bias

12

Relative Risk looks at what?

how many times more/less likely exposed individuals are to get the dz. relative to non-exposed individuals

13

How do you calculate RR?

14

Purpose of Cofidence Interval (CI)?

allows you to determine whether or not the RR/OR can be deemed statistically significant

15

When is the result said to be statistically significant?

(in regards to the CI)

  • if the CI falls entirely on either side of the null value (1.0)
  • has be 95% or higher

16

_______ are study subjects who have the disease of interest in Case-Control Studies.

Cases

17

What is the purpose of Case-Control Studies?

 

compare frequency of exposure factors in cases w/ dz and cases w/o dz.

18

_______ are subjects who are dz free at the time of selection in Case-Control Studies.

Controls

19

Where does Case Selection come from?

  • all cases in a defined population or from the general population
  • often more convient

20

Controls selected from CCS should be __________ to cases in every respect except _______.

  • identical
  • disease

21

How do you calculate Odds Ratio (OR)?

 

22

Which study uses OR?

Case-Control Studies

23

4 Strengths of Case-Control Study?

  • Rare dz.
  • Multiple exposure
  • cheap & fast
  • Small # of subjects

24

4 Weaknesses of Case-Control Studies?

  • No Incidence or Prevalence
  • Bias→ recall, selection, information, misclassification
  • Difficult to establish temporal relationships
  • Cofounding

25

Objective of Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs)?

subjects followed over time to test possible effects of therapeutic & preventative interventions

26

Which RCT evaluates whether agent/procedure reduces risk of dz. developing in those currently free from dz?

Field Trial

(Prevention Trial)

27

3 Strengths of RCTs?

  • Control over study situation
  • Casual relatioship can be established
  • Reduced confounding & bias

28

5 Weaknesses of RCTs?

  • May not accurately represent normal population
  • Need large sample size → $$
  • May be timely
  • Ethical issues
  • Bias if no blinding is present

29

Test that is:

  • Applied to animals showing CS of dz.
  • Confirms or classifies dz. status

DX tests

30

This test is used to:

  • to ID undiagnosed cases of dz in apparently healthy populations

Screening tests