Flashcards in EPIDEMIOLOGYÐICS Deck (30)
Describe a cohort study.
Examines a group of subjects exposed to a certain risk factor/situation. Can be prospective (exposed and then followed over time) or retrospective (examines exposed group in whom disease has already occurred.)
Conclusion of a cohort study
Describe a case-control study
Retrospectively compares a group with disease to healthy controls. Frequency of certain exposures in both groups considered.
Conclusion of a case-control study
Disadvantages of a case-control study
Recall and selection bias
Describe a cross-sectional study
Estimates disease PREVALENCE following exposure
What the heck is a "length" bias?
Screening test detects SLOWLY progressive diseases and MISSES rapidly progressive diseases, thus overestimating the effectiveness of a screening test.
What is the publication bias?
The idea that studies that SHOW a difference are more likely to be published compared to studies that end up supporting the null hypothesis. The issue that comes in is meta-analyses will then only include these studies, and not include ALL studies, including the ones that supported the null hypothesis.
The idea that patients with a certain medical history (think: histrionic) are more likely to participate in a study. Thus, the study isn't representative of the general population.
Relative risk equation
Disease in exposed/disease in unexposed.
No relationship between exposure and disease
Odds ratio equation
Odds of exposure in diseased/odds of exposure in healthy.
Odds ratio is most accurate as an estimate of relative risk in cases of .. ?
Attributable risk equation
Rate of disease in exposed population - rate of disease in unexposed population.
Positive likelihood ratio
Negative likelihood ratio
Type I error
Type II error
Conditions that mimic brain death
Metabolic encephalopathy, hypothermia, locked in syndrome, guillain barre
What is the prudent person rule
Physician must provide info to a patient that a reasonable person would want before he/she makes a decision about tx. Need to tell pts dx, risks, expected benefits, alternative tx, costs.
What is respondeat superior
Physicians are responsible for those who work under their supervision for acts that occur within scope of employment
What is the stark act
Prohibits phtiscian referrals to entity that physician has financial relationship with
res ipsa locquitor
Clear wrongdoing with no fault of patient. Doc needs to now prove the patients injury was not caused by negligence.
Case decided in another lawsuit
Failure to mitigate
Patient should take reasonable steps to avoid or reduce injury, like PT
Promising to cure a patient is an example of
breach of contract
Altered/destroyed medical records in an example of
inference of guilt
duty to report deaths withhin how long
Who enforces drug sales and distribution and ensures that they are safe for the public
FDA, an agency with department of HHS