EPIDEMIOLOGYÐICS Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in EPIDEMIOLOGYÐICS Deck (30)
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1

Describe a cohort study.

Examines a group of subjects exposed to a certain risk factor/situation. Can be prospective (exposed and then followed over time) or retrospective (examines exposed group in whom disease has already occurred.)

2

Conclusion of a cohort study

Relative risk

3

Describe a case-control study

Retrospectively compares a group with disease to healthy controls. Frequency of certain exposures in both groups considered.

4

Conclusion of a case-control study

Odds ratio

5

Disadvantages of a case-control study

Recall and selection bias

6

Describe a cross-sectional study

Estimates disease PREVALENCE following exposure

7

What the heck is a "length" bias?

Screening test detects SLOWLY progressive diseases and MISSES rapidly progressive diseases, thus overestimating the effectiveness of a screening test.

8

What is the publication bias?

The idea that studies that SHOW a difference are more likely to be published compared to studies that end up supporting the null hypothesis. The issue that comes in is meta-analyses will then only include these studies, and not include ALL studies, including the ones that supported the null hypothesis.

9

Self-selection bias

The idea that patients with a certain medical history (think: histrionic) are more likely to participate in a study. Thus, the study isn't representative of the general population.

10

Relative risk equation

Disease in exposed/disease in unexposed.

11

RR=1

No relationship between exposure and disease

12

Odds ratio equation

Odds of exposure in diseased/odds of exposure in healthy.

13

Odds ratio is most accurate as an estimate of relative risk in cases of .. ?

Rare disease.

14

Attributable risk equation

Rate of disease in exposed population - rate of disease in unexposed population.

15

Positive likelihood ratio

Sensitivity/(1-specificity)

16

Negative likelihood ratio

(1-sensitivity)/specificity

17

Type I error

False positive

18

Type II error

False negative

19

Conditions that mimic brain death

Metabolic encephalopathy, hypothermia, locked in syndrome, guillain barre

20

What is the prudent person rule

Physician must provide info to a patient that a reasonable person would want before he/she makes a decision about tx. Need to tell pts dx, risks, expected benefits, alternative tx, costs.

21

What is respondeat superior

Physicians are responsible for those who work under their supervision for acts that occur within scope of employment

22

What is the stark act

Prohibits phtiscian referrals to entity that physician has financial relationship with

23

res ipsa locquitor

Clear wrongdoing with no fault of patient. Doc needs to now prove the patients injury was not caused by negligence.

24

Res judicata

Case decided in another lawsuit

25

Failure to mitigate

Patient should take reasonable steps to avoid or reduce injury, like PT

26

Promising to cure a patient is an example of

breach of contract

27

Altered/destroyed medical records in an example of

inference of guilt

28

duty to report deaths withhin how long

24-72 hrs

29

Who enforces drug sales and distribution and ensures that they are safe for the public

FDA, an agency with department of HHS

30

What is the doctrine of professional discretion

Physician can determine if patient viewing of medical record would be harmful