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Flashcards in Epilepsy Deck (24):
1

seizure

sudden episode of neuro dysfunction that is associated with abnormal electrical signaling in the brain

2

epilepsy

abnormally increasing tendency to have seizures

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what are the typical causes of seizures in different age ranges?

infants - intrauterine or perinatal trauma
childhood - metabolic defects or congenital disorders
school age - genetic (petit mal or temporal lobe)
adulthood - tumors and strokes

4

Grand Mal Seizure

seizure of generalized onset that involves the whole cortex (loss of consciousness + incr. motor activity) - spike-wave (depolarization-relaxation) activity on EEG

5

Secondarily generalized seizure

starts with focal onset and then goes general

6

what is the most common primary generalized seizure disorder in childhood?

Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME)

7

Petit Mal

seizure of generalized onset (usually starts in upper brain stem), characterized by short episodes of blank starring w/o memory. EEG - 3 sec spike-wave cycles, generally no post-ictal state

8

Simple partial seizures

a seizure of focal onset that begins in one part of the cortex and manifests with associated symptoms

9

Jacksonian March

seen in simple partial seizures of the motor cortex than become generalized - characteristic spreading of clonic motor activity

10

complex partial seizure

seizure of focal onset that begins in an association area of the cortex and causes behavioral, visceral and affective phenomena (limbic system involvement) w/o memory during event. generally in frontal and temporal lobes.

11

What is the most common seizure disorder?

complex partial seizures bc limbic system has low threshold for metabolic injury

12

types of continuous seziures

status epilepticus and epilepsia partialis continua (>30 mins)

13

why is status epilepticus a medical emergency?

leads to hyperthermia, hypoxia, and changes in BP and HR, as well as the possibility of the seizure activity causing damage

14

Best anti-convulsant tx options

Phenytoin
Carbamazepine
Valproic Acid
Phenobarbital

15

Best drug to tx status epilepticus

IV benzodiazepines

16

Best drug for absence seziure tx

Ethosuximide

17

Todd's Paralysis

lateralized weakness or paralysis during the postictal state

18

Infantile Seizures

seizures affecting an infant from 4-18 mos of age, characterized by tonic, atonic, or mized activity. Can be caused by many things and generally are very serious. EEG shows hypsarrhythmia w/ multifocal spikes and periodic attenuation.

19

Infantile Seizure Tx

ACTH

20

Febrile seizures

common childhood seizures that are considered generally benign. most often occur in 16-22 mos of age.

21

3 risk factors that might suggest epilepsy in febrile seizures

1. >15 mins
2. focal or partial seizures (vs. generalized)
3. repetitive seizures within 24 hours

22

Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

lifelong condition typically characterized by absence seizures when young and then involuntary jerking movements (esp. in morning) in adolescence and finally generalized convulsions

23

What is the most likely cause of status epilepticus?

medication withdrawal

24

What is the most serious/concerning cause of status epilepticus?

infections