Neuro-Onc Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neuro-Onc Deck (19):
1

What is the differential for mass lesions in the brain?

1. Hemorrhage
2. Neoplasm
3. Inflammatory Mass (granuloma, abscess)
4. Demyelinating Plaques of MS

2

Whare do children tend to get CNS neoplasms?

posterior cranial fossa and spinal cord

3

Where do adults tend to get CNS neoplasms?

middle and anterior cranial fossa and metastatic tumors (breast and lung)

4

What are the most common primary intracranial tumors?

Glioma, meningioma, extra-axial tumors

5

What is the most aggressive primary intracranial tumor?

astrocytoma

6

What are some of the general s/sx of CNS tumors?

Increased ICP, N/V, seizures onset depends on how fast the tumor is growing

7

Meningiomas

almost always a benign, slow growing tumor, it presents with personality changes, optic nerve/muscle issues, or myelopathy depending on where it is. tx: monitot or resect it.
Path: psmmoma bodies, cellular whorls, nuclear psuedo-inclusions

8

Glioma

Derived from oligodendroglia, astroglia or ependymal cells. Range in their degree of malignancy - astrocytomas are hard to remove bc they grow into the brain tissue and have no surgical boarder.

9

Glioblastoma multiforme Astrocytoma

The most malignant glioma that are highly anaplastic and cause necrosis, pseudopalisading and proliferation of endothelial cells. It can metastisize via the CSF. Has "fried egg" tumor cells pathologically with delicate capillary networks.

10

Oligodendroglioma

A less aggressive type of glioma that often presents with seizures, is slow growing, and may calcify. Not commonly curable, but can be abated with chemo and radiation.

11

Neurolemoma

Tumor derived from the nerve coverings. Acoustic neuroma is the most common cause that presents with unilateral hearing loss and can be removed with resection.

12

Ependymoma

Tumor derived from the cells lining the ventricles and central canal. Presents more in young people and is often resectable, but does recur. It can also cause drop metastases.

13

Primitive Neuroectodermal tumors

Seen in children and young adults, these tumors are often found in the midline in the posterior fossa. They are sensitive to chemo and radiation though often not curable.

14

Most common metastases to the CNS?

lung, breast, colon

15

Most selectively metastasize in the CNS?

renal cancer, ovarian cancer, melanoma

16

Tumor grading

1. benign, slow growing, unlikely to recur or spread
2. slow growing, but will come back
3. aggressive, requires therapy more than surgery alone
4. anaplastic, malignant, lethal

17

Schwannoma

Spindle cell tumor that is associated with cranial and spinal nerves and present pathologically with verocay bodies

18

Metastases

One of the most common types of tumors found in the brain. Are sharp edged and are made up of cells of a different lineage than CNS cells. This tumor type presents with the most edema around lesion.

19

How do tumors produce neuro deficits?

1. ischemia
2. compression
3. edema