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geography - migration, identity and sovereignity > EQ1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in EQ1 Deck (23)
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1

migrants

people who move from one location (a source area) to a new location (a destination) permanently

2

internal migration

within a country, e.g. from north of England to London

3

external migration

between countries, e.g. UK citizen migrating to Germany

4

global shift

the movement of jobs from developed countries such as the UK and USA, to new locations in emerging economies such as China and Mexico. It has affected both manufacturing and services

5

golbalisation

economic process that has created wider, faster and deeper connections between places and contributed to the idea of the 'shrinking world'

6

rural-urban migration

involves people usually moving from their traditional homes in the countryside to towns and cities in search of work

7

a free-trade area

is the result of a trade agreement removing taxes, tariffs and quotas on imports and exports so goods [and sometimes services] can move barrier-free across international boarders

8

citizenship

means being a legal member of a sovereign state [country] with the rights that this brings, such as the right to vote, and live and work indefinitely in that sovereign state.

9

visa

a legal document allowing a person to enter a foreign country. Visas have conditions setting out how long people can stay and whether or not they can work.

10

net migration

is the difference between outflows or losses [emigration] and inflows or gains [immigration] over a period of time

11

second generation migrants

are children of immigrants [the first generation]

12

refugees

migrants forced to move across an international boarder to escape a threat (war, political persecution, genocide, famine or the impacts of natural disasters)

13

asylum seekers

these are refugees who have applied for asylum, i.e. the right to remain in another country, and are awaiting a decision

14

illegal immigrants

those who have entered a foreign country without documentation, but have done so voluntarily

15

trafficked illegal migrants

people forced, or tricked, into migrating to a country who often end up as sex workers, or in modern slavery

16

national identity

a sense of belonging to a country, based o widely held beliefs, traditions, shared history and shared national symbols

17

capitalism

the worlds dominant economic system; it stresses private ownership of businesses, the profit motive, competition between businesses and freedom to trade goods and services

18

the global elite

wealthy individuals with large assets, representing the richest 1% of the worlds people

19

the host culture

refers to the majority, indigenous population of a country/ area e.g. white British in the UK

20

remittances

money sent home by immigrants to their families in their country of origin

21

a points-based immigration system

where potential immigrants are awarded points based on their skills, education level and other factors to determine whether they are needed.

22

benefits of immigration for the host country

- taking employment in key social services e.g. the NHS
- new foods, fashion and arts
- greater cultural diversity makes a country more interesting an global
- fills labour shortages and skill gaps
- increases taxes paid to government
- boosts the average skill level
- offsets an ageing popuation
- boosts fertility rates

23

costs of immigration for the host country

- pressure on schools and other social services
- segregated areas of low income migrants creates division
- some cultural traits are incompatible wit the host culture e.g. position of women in society
- downward pressure of wages, especially of the low paid
- risks displacing some host population workers
- leads to overpopulation and overcrowding
- pressure of housing and house prices rises