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Flashcards in EQ2 Deck (35)
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what are the general negative effects of the global shift to asia in asia?

Loss of productive land
Unplanned settlements
Environmental + resource pressure


what are the general benefits of the global shift to asia in asia?

infrastructure investment
waged work
poverty reduction


list the major environmental problems experienced by communities through globilisation that affect their health and wellbeing.

air and water pollution
land degradation
over-exploitation of resources
loss of biodiversity


what is economic restructuring?

economic restructuring refers to the phenomenon of Western urban areas shifting from a manufacturing to a service sector economic base.


what are the social and environmental problems caused as a result of economic restructuring?

high unemployment


what is one example of elite migration?

russian oligarchs migrating to london


what are 2 examples of mass low wage migration?

india to UAE
Philippines to Saudi Arabia


what spreads an increasingly 'western' global culture?

global media corporations


list how TNCs contribute to the spread of globilisation.

global production networks
development of new markets


How does deindustrialisation lead to worse quality of life ?

Factories close-land becomes derelict-jobs lost-people leave inner city-fewer services needed,shops+schools close- more jobs lost-more people- people who stay are mainly elderly or low income groups-little money put into area so becomes more rundown- more crime+vandalism, lower qol.


What are the intervening obstacles for an economic migrant?

-Not speaking local language
-Visas/ other legal requirements
-Family pressure to stay


Why is North Korea so switched off ?

-gov't wanna remain isolated- don't want whole country to know that rest of world leading a much better life
- lost many trade partners+foreign breads from e.europe when communism fell
- maintains v v big military, draining resources
-face massive sanctions from us, un.. bc of nuclear programme. - v impossible to trade w rest of world.


Describe the growth of Mumbai.

People flock from impoverished rural states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
2015: 22 million people - more than doubled since 1970.


Describe the economic structure of Mumbai.

Urban employment covers a range of economic sectors and skill levels- large global brands e.g. Starbucks, Hilton
locals selling goods to rising middle class.
Some v wealthy people in Mumbai, including Bollywood stars and billionaires
Affluent areas: bandra and andheri
Slum areas : Dharavi - rising land prices across Mumbai- great pressure to redevelop this+other slum areas


Describe the economic structure of Karachi.

Karachi= Pakistan's centre of finance, industry+trade.
Range of industrial sectors including shipping banking retailing manufacturing
Increase mainly due to internal migration


What's the major problem with Karachi?

World's most dangerous megacity: murder rate 12.3 for 100,000 residents
Crossed 2000 murders a year in 2012.


Describe the violence in Karachi.

-Minority Shia community attacked by Sunni supremacists.
-Gangs tied to political parties run extortion rackets+land grab schemes
-Pakistani Taliban militants gained foothold in city- criminal+smuggling rackets, robberies
-Pitched firefights between gangs or between a gangs+police that last for days.


How do urban areas grow ?

Natural increase-60%
Migration- 30%
Reclassification of rural areas- 10%


What is centripetal migration?

Movement of people to centre of urban areas.


What are the problems caused by the growth of mega cities?

Traffic congestion
Excessive waste
Disease epidemics
Lack of green space
Widespread poverty
Water/noise/air pollution
Deep ecofootprints
Slum sprawl
Pressures on water quality/ supply


What are examples of good urban governance leading to sustainable cities ?

-taxes collected+invested in city
-resources provided for population
-resource provision minimises environmental damage
-population is healthy+educated so further economic growth occurs


What makes Panama a global hub?

-canal connecting 2 oceans
- directly involved in 5% global trade
- Tocumen int'l airport more than 5mill passengers per year
-colón free trade zone 2nd largest in world
-currency US$
-stable democratic gov't good for investing
-tax benefits+positive fiscal laws for investors.


What are the characteristics of global hubs ?

Nodes on a network; Coastline ideal for trade
Strategic coastline encourages investment
Gov't policy open to investment
Languages spoken
Skilled labour-unis
Affluence attracts service providers
Large labour force
Physical factors aid growth of industry


What are the environmental effects of the global shift in china?

-severe air pollution in cities like Beijing-close to 50% of all the worlds coal is burnt in china.
-over 20% china subject to desertification and severe soil erosion, leading to dust storms.
-in 2015 almost half of China's land bases vertebrate species had been lost as habitats got destroyed.


What's the air pollution in Beijing?

Regularly over 100 PM2.5


What are the benefits of immigrants leaving their host country in their host country?

-remittances boost the incomes of families
-contact w a different culture
-reduces pressure o resources


What are the benefits of immigrants in the destinations ?

-low waged workers fill skills gaps
-migrants can counteract ageing population


What is remittances ?

The money migrants send back home to help their families in the source country.


What kind of culture does globalisation spread?

'Westernised' global culture


What is the westernised culture based on?

-wealth creation to guy consumer goods and high levels of consumption
-private enterprise: people owning businesses instead of the govt owning them
-"success"- how wealthy u are
-fashion, technology, trends
-exploiting the environment to gain wealth