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Flashcards in equality Deck (14):

secular concepts of equality?

1 strict or simple equality - everyone has the same amount of goods (money and resources)
2 equality of need - equality is best achieved by satisfying people's needs, those who have greater needs should simply receive more resources
3 equality of desert - goods should be distributed to the extent that people deserve them, those who do the most deserve the most


religious concepts of gender equality?

some biblical verses emphasise that men and women are all equal in gods eyes. others suggest that men and women have distinct god-given roles e.g. in genesis god created eve as a helper for adam and she was the one who listened to the serpent - this story has been invoked to justify hatred and oppression over women. OT teachings like this are also often referenced to restore traditional gender roles at home and in society. conversely many modern christians point out that jesus lived his life somewhat at odds with these teaching as women travelled with him and figures such as mary magdalene play a key role in the gospels


religious concepts of racial equality?

again biblical verses can be found which emphasise that all races are of equal value to god. moreover it is easy to read the parable of the good samaritan as a critique of racial attitudes. this would likely have challenged any prejudices those listening held. the message of christ was also at the heart of Martin Luther Kings thinking about racial equality
the OT is slightly more complex, it emergents from and ancient world where slavery was commonplace. historically some elements of the church have supported slavery, while others opposed it. today few christians would support the practice.


christian concept of disability equality?

many of jesus' miracles involve him curing people who are disabled. while these biblical examples clearly establish christ as being a great healer and emphasise his loving ethic, they sit somewhat awkwardly with modern conceptions of disability. campaigners for disability equality are not seeking pity or healing but respect. the demand is for autonomy and equal rights, not a miraculous cure. on the other hand many of the charities and legal changes in this area have been spearheaded by members of the church.


simone de beauvoir?

was a french feminist philosopher who though that there is a difference between an individuals biological sex which is defined by reproductive organs and their gender which is defined by society. the idea of a woman for simone is rooted less in nature than it is in society particularly in its expectations for women: what they should wear, how they should behave etc.
significantly these expectations are often set by men who occupying the dominant position in society hold themselves to represent the norm for behaviour and see any deviation from it as an inadequacy. she thinks women have been placed in a role by society they did not choose and ever since have been made to suffer for it, thus state of affairs is often referred to as patriarchy.
simone did not deny that men and women are different in some respects, she just thought those differences should not stop them from being equal.


waves of feminism?

1 first wave of feminism (late 19th to early 20th century) - the suffragette movement founded by Emmeline Pankhurst, often seen as embodying the spirit of early feminism in britain. focused on securing equal voting rights rights men.
2- second wave of feminism (1960-80s) - emerging alongside the civil rights movement, second wave feminist expanded on the legal demands made by first wave feminism to include wider social issues such as reproductive rights and domestic violence. activists in this era sought to liberate women from oppressive gender roles.
3 third wave feminism (1990s-present) - influenced by post modern theorists who sought to deconstruct fixed concepts of sexuality and gender, sought empowerment for women rejecting the idea that women are victims, those who identify with the movement emphasise individual freedom and choice
4 fourth wave feminist (2010s-?) - in recent years it has been suggested by some feminist thinkers that a new wave of feminism has begun in the age of social media. unlike the first second and third waves this new movement seems to have been born of the technological change.


social and legal changes in the u.k.?

1867 - women's suffrage (equal voting rights)
1870 - married women legally allowed to own property
1903 - suffragettes
1918 - right to vote is extended to women over 30
1920 - women able to enter legal and accounting professions
1928 - women have same voting rights as men
1956 - civil service and teaching professions offer equal pay for men and women
1965 - first female minister of state is appointed
1967 - abortion is decriminalised
1970 - parliament passes the equal pay act
1975 - parliament passes the sex discrimination act
1979 - first female prime minister
1990 - married women taxed separately from their husband
1994 - rape in marriage becomes a criminal offence
1999 - parliament passed the sex discrimination gender reassignment regulations
2002 - lesbian and unmarried couples can adopt children
2005 - the civil partnership act allowed same sex couples to form civil partnerships
2014 - marriage bill allowed same sex couples to marry


Martin Luther King?

came to a national fame after the montgomery bus boycott and civil disobedience. eventually local authorities caved which meant a hugely significant win for King to fuel his civil rights movement.
known for his pacifism.
his campaigns of non violent resistance had a profound influence on the civil rights movement and the broader struggle for racial equality. 1964 us government passes the civil rights act bringing to a close the era of racial segregation.


malcom x?

more controversial than MLK, he argued that armed struggle may be required if black americans were ever to be truly liberated from racism.
early life was dominated by petty crime and served time in prison while there he converted to islam.
the injustices carried out against black people in america, X thought, should be fought against by any means necessary.
in his opinion a government run by white people could not be trusted to act in the interest of African americans he believed the black community should govern themselves.


black lives matter?

in 2012 george zimmerman shot dead a black teenager trayvon martin and was subsequently acquitted of murder. in response the founding members of the movement posted a tweet condemning the verdict concluding with the hashtag #BlackLivesMatter. the group has since organised numerous protests and garnered significant media attention. though black lives matter is most commonly associated with the campaigns for racial equality in the us justice system and an end to police brutality it also raises awareness of how gender sexuality and disability discrimination can further disadvantage black people.


social and legal changes in the us and u.k.?

1790- naturalisation act bars non whites from us citizenship
1833- slavery abolished in the british empire
1863- lincoln frees slaves
1924- native americans granted us citizen ship
1955- rosa parks refuses to give up her seat
1962- a black stupidest enters university of Mississippi for the first time
1963- MLK i have a dream speech
1964- civil rights act is passes ending segregation
1965- black people can vote
1966- murder of malcolm x
1968- murder of MLK
1970- civil rights act passed for property
1976- u.k. parliament passes the race relations act
1991- compensation to those who have been discriminated gains in employment
1992- riots in LA
1998- u.k. parliament passes human rights act
2000- public institutions must actively promote racial equality
2014- riots in ferguson


joni eareckson tada?

paralysed from the neck down @ 17.
devoted her life to charity.
confronts the issue of why did god let this happen to me?
only by facing hardship she believes so we have a need for christ in our lives. by being disabled she shows how the wretchedness of suffering can be overcome by faith.


the disability rights movement?

although disability has always existed the understanding of it has altered dramatically over time. some think that the disabled were closer to god in fact they were already in purgatory. the christian understanding developed over the centuries and eventually settled on the view that disability was not a punishment from god but simply poor fortune deserving of pity and charity.
the nazi party's programme of racial cleaning demonstrated to the world eugenics' logical conclusion and the theory swiftly fell out of fashion.
meanwhile advances in medicine made possible new treatments for a wide range of conditions.
disability and equality in the u.k. today:
following the 2010 equality act the u.k. government defined a disability as a physical or mental impairment that has a substantial or long term negative effect in someone's ability to do normal daily activities. it means employers must make reasonable adjustments for disabled workers and that education providers much not treat disabled students unfavourably


social and legal changes in the u.k.?

1388- poor law allows disabled people to claim charity
1547- priory of st mary of bethlehem is solely used to house the mentally ill
1601- elizabethan poor law required church parishes to support disabled persons
1764- first school for deaf opens
1774- madhouses act
1868- founding of the royal national institute for the blind
1913- local authorities required to supervise the care of the mentally deficient
1920-local authorities should take more of an active role in supporting blind individuals
1944- disabled persons emplacement act
1948- creation of the first NHS
1952- disability charity scope is founded
1970- chronically sick and disabled persons act
1981- international year of disabled people
1995- parliament passes the disability discrimination act
1999- national service framework for mental health is established
2005- amendments to the disability discrimination act of 1995
2010- UN convention of the rights of people with disabilities