Equine ms Flashcards Preview

DI > Equine ms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Equine ms Deck (63):
1

What major groups can large animal diseases be classified into?

  • Acute inury
  • Chronic repetitive stress or trauma
  • Degenerative joint disease
  • Infection
  • Iatrogenic
  • Metabolic derangement
  • Rarely immune-mediated disorders
  • Very rarely neoplasia

2

T/F: Routine radiology is the standard for many orthopedic disorders

TRUE

3

What is radiology's emphasis on?

Obtaining a correct diagnosis and following response of a therapy or treatment

4

The complexity of most equine joints require what 4 views?

  • Lateromedial
  • Dorsopalmar (plantar)
  • DMPLO
  • DLPMO

5

What view is this?

Q image thumb

DLPMO

6

Which factors regarding radiology of an extremity in large animals are similar to small animals?

All of them!

(Safety, grid use, proper film/screen combos, holder equip, x-ray settings, etc.)

7

What should additionally be done when obtaining images of the distal extrimities in equines?

Remove the shoes, clean the lateral sulci and pack w/ a moldable material

8

What view is this?

Q image thumb

DMPLO

9

What is the most commonly affected joint in horses with hindlimb lameness?

The tarsus

10

How can the lateral trochlear ridge be identified on radiographs?

By the large notch at its distal aspect

11

T/F: The medial trochlear ridge can have variable appearances

TRUE

12

What is the arrow pointing to?

Q image thumb

Medial trochlear ridge

13

What is the arrow pointing to?

Q image thumb

Lateral trochlear notch

14

T/F: Osteochondrosis of the tarsocrural joint is common, often unilateral

FALSE--it is common, but is often bilateral

15

Where is OCD located in the tarsocrural joint? What view is best for detection?

The cranial aspect of the intermediate ridge of the distal tibia--seen best on the DMPLO view

16

T/F: If a fragment is present (OCD), it can usually be seen on the lateromedial view

TRUE

17

What view is this?

Q image thumb

Lateromedial

18

What view is this?

Q image thumb

Dorsoplantar

19

What view is this?

Q image thumb

DMPLO

20

What view is this?

Q image thumb

DLPMO

21

What condition does this indicate?

Q image thumb

Osteochondrosis (OCD)

22

T/F: The lateral trochlear ridge of the talus and the medial ridge (second most common) are also affected with osteochondrosis

FALSE--the lateral trochlear ridge of the talus is the second most common area for OCD

A image thumb
23

Where can fragments of the osteochondritis dessicans settle to in OCD?

Bottom of the joint

24

What is bone spavin?

Degenerative joint disease of the tarsus

25

What is the most common cause of lameness associated with the tarsus?

Bone spavin

26

Which joints are most frequently involved in bone spavin?

Distal intertasal and tarsometatarsal

27

What is the most common finding in bone spavin?

Periarticular osteophyte formation

28

What might advanced bone spavin have?

Subchondral bone lysis and narrowing of the joint space

29

What can bone spavin progress to?

Sclerosis and eventual ankylosis

30

T/F: The degree of changes in bone spavin does not often correlate well to clinical signs

TRUE

31

What does this indicate?

Q image thumb

Degenerative joint disease

32

Disease?

Q image thumb

Severe DJD

33

T/F: The distal radius forms from 2 ossification centers--the distal radial and ulnar epiphysis (closes at 9 mo)

TRUE

34

How many ossification centers can the accessory carpal bone have?

2--close between 5-7mo

35

What's wrong with this carpus?

Q image thumb

NOTHING--the arrow is pointing to an area that hasn't fused yet

36

What is the arrow pointing to?

What view is this?

Q image thumb

Arrow is pointing to the 1st carpal bone

DMPLO view

A image thumb
37

7 possible diseases of the carpus?

  1. Trauma
  2. Carpal fractures
    1. Chip
    2. Slab
  3. Osteochondrosis
  4. Physitis
  5. Angular limb deformities
  6. Septic arthritis
  7. Osteoarthrosis 

38

What is wrong with this carpus?

Q image thumb

Radial carpal bone chip fracture

39

Diagnosis?

Q image thumb

Osteoarthrosis (severe)

40

Possible diseases of the metacarpal/-tarsal bones?

  • Splints--periosteal reaction and possible synostosis of metacarpal/tarsal bones
  • Bucked shins or metacarpal periostitis
  • Sequestrum
  • Trauma

41

What is used to examine the tendons when suspecting disease of the metacarpal/tarsal bones?

Ultrasound

42

Diagnosis?

Q image thumb

Sequestrum

43

T/F: In the proximal phalanx there are many vascular channels that radiate from the solar margin centrally

FALSE--in the distal phalanx

44

Does the distal phalanx have a medullary cavity?

Nope

45

What is the crena marginis solearis?

A smooth rounded concavity of the distal phalanx solar margin (more prominent in hind limb)

46

What is wrong here?

Q image thumb

NOTHING--this is normal

47

Possible diseases of the phalanges?

  • Traumatic fractures
  • Tendon injury, deformity, or contracture
  • Infection
    • Osteomyelitis
    • Septic osteitis
  • DJD
  • Laminitis
  • Pedal osteitis
  • Side bone
  • Keratoma (rare)

48

Diagnosis?

Q image thumb

Club foot--palmar tendon deformity/contracture

49

What are the characteristics of a septic coffin joint?

  • Increased synovial mass
  • Marked lysis of adjacent bone
  • Amorphous periosteal reaction
  • Soft tissue swelling
  • Subluxation

A image thumb
50

Is anything wrong with this?

Q image thumb

Moderate laminitis and rotation

51

Diagnosis?

Q image thumb

Severe laminitis, penetration of sole and rotation

A image thumb
52

What are the 4 surfaces of the navicular bone?

Proximal, distal, articular, and flexor

53

T/F: The articular surface of the navicular bone has a prominent central ridge--the central eminence

FALSE--the flexor surface has the central ridge

54

What do the extremities of the navicular bone look like?

Spindle shaped and blunted

55

The navicular bone has no more than ___ synovial invaginations (radiolucent) that are relatively triangular in shape

7

56

What separation on the navicular bone should be detected?

A clear cortical medullary separation

57

What is circled?

Q image thumb

Navicular bone

A image thumb
58

4 diseases of the navicular bone?

  • Navicular degeneration
  • Fractures
  • Navicular sepsis
  • DJD

59

T/F: There is no universal agreement as to the clinical importance of all radiographic signs of navicular disease

TRUE

60

What are all these signs indicative of?

Q image thumb

Navicular disease

61

What's going on here?

Q image thumb

Enthesophyte and navicular remodeling

62

List allllllll the problems

Q image thumb

Severe remodeling, irreglar distal surface, multiple irregular synovial invaginations, mineralization of ligaments (enthesophyte) of the navicular bone 

63

Diagnosis?

Q image thumb

Navicular fracture

*Make sure line stops at navicular bone--could just be an artifact*