Flashcards in Equine Nutrition Deck (105):
What is considered a geriatric horse?
any horse over 20 years of age.
T/F: adding in a supplement to a horse's diet is likely to help balance it.
False. Usually unbalance a diet by adding in supplements. Most horses do not need supplements.
What does it mean when you say a horse is a continuous eruptor?
They have long teeth that slowly erupt. Should evaluate their teeth yearly.
When floating teeth, what surface do you float/rasp?
The points only. Do not touch the occluding surface.
What is wave mouth?
the teeth are worn unevenly. Some are very worn while others aren't. This happens in the same arcade of teeth.
What is shear mouth?
whole tooth surface is on an angle.
About how much can your average horse stomach hold?
8L (can technically hold more than this, but you don't want the stomach more full than 8L).
How long does food stay in the horse stomach?
Small amount of time. This likely limits the amount of digestion that occurs here.
How many meals should a horse get a day?
3 times a day (in reference to hay and grain). However, they ideally should have hay in front of them all day.
How much of mixed feed protein gets digested in the SI?
Up to 55%. Ideally, you'd want feed to be 100% absorbed before it reaches the large intestine.
How are proteins absorbed in the horse small intestine?
as amino acids, because they're more effectively utilized.
The small intestine is the site of absorption of what?
fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K, as well as carotene, carbohydrates (sugars and starches), minerals, fat, and protein.
Why do you have to be careful about what type of vitamin E you feed your horse?
Because they're not all absorbed.
When do you start to see problems with digestion and feed intake?
When more than 50% of the SI is removed.
How long does it take for feed from one meal to reach the LI?
LI is the primary site of absorption of what?
water. It can act as a water reservoir when water availability is an issue.
Digestion in the large intestine is largely the result of what?
Microbes in the LI breakdown what? What do they produce?
breakdown structural carbs of plants and produce VFAs.
T/F: bacterial overgrowth in the large intestine is a reason for colic.
What concerns should you have when feeding a horse non-structural carbs?
Creating large colon disturbances and abnormalities.
Hydrolyzable CHOs are digested where?
in the SI
Rapidly fermentable CHOs are digested where?
Rapidly fermentable CHOs are found where?
in grasses. Quantities very in diff times of year and season/time of day.
Slowly fermentable CHOs are digested where?
in the LI. These create the most colon health.
What is the ideal diet for a sedentary horse as well as most athletic horses?
high quality hay, water, and a salt block.
What should you look at when assessing long-term nutrition in feeding regimen?
body condition, not weight.
Where do you find the highest variability in nutrients?
T/F: Processing makes poor quality feed into good quality.
False. It can make it a little better, but won't turn it into good quality.
What are some downsides to processing horse feed?
can increase the rate of passage through GIT, decreasing digestibility. Can also lead to decrease in colonic health.
If you're going to feed processed food, what should the processing ideally do to the food?
increase its digestibility in the small intestine.
T/F: the presence of micronutrients in a feed means they are absorbable.
False. They could be bound by other things.
What affects the availability of Ca?
phytates and oxalates. Also, high dietary P.
What is the most important component of a horse's diet?
Why is forage so important?
Because it is essential for proper GIT function, since they are hind-gut fermenters.
How much pasture can support 2 mature, light breed horses?
one acre of GOOD pasture, and 30-60 acres of dry range pasture can support ONE horse a year.
What are some habits that can develop if there is decreased roughage?
wood chewing, cribbing, coprophagia, tail chewing, and mane chewing.
What is gut fill?
how much content is in the cecum/large colon. They can have up to 2 days of food in there, and it is important to make sure that gut fill is satisfied.
How often should horses have hay/roughage available?
What is some criteria to look at to determine you've got good quality hay?
it's gotta be harvested early, free of mold, dust, weeds, it should be leafy and not stemmy, it should have not undergone excessive weathering, and it should be pretty green.
What is the most common type of harvested legumes?
What grasses are commonly used in horses?
timothy, brome, and prairie (orchard less frequently).
What grasses are associated with issues in horses?
What can you use as a substitute for roughage or grain?
What is the purpose of hulls?
they increase the safety of the feed.
What seeds have hulls?
oats, rice, barley, husked sorghum.
What seeds don't have hulls?
corn, milo, wheat, rye.
Why exactly are hulls safer?
because they are not as energy dense (they're also high in fiber)
What are some advantages to using corn?
the same volume has twice the energy of oats, inexpensive, more consistent quality, and high content of Vit. A.
What are some disadvantages to corn?
possible mold toxicity, lowest quantity of protein, and requires more careful management.
T/F: oats are a very common thing to feed horses because of their good protein content and low cost.
False. Although the first part of the statement is correct, oats are often the most expensive.
What is the most common protein supplement used in horses?
If you're feeding your horse fat, which type of fat should you use?
plant based fat, usually vegetable.
Why would you add fats to a horse's diet?
to reduce the total amount of feed intake. We are trying to replace grains as much as possible, and fat allows us to do this.
What is quidding?
when old horses make hay/grass balls but don't swallow it all.
What is a complete feed?
a commercially prepared feed that involves some form of roughage (can be fed w/o additional hay). i.e. senior feed. ***very expensive***
Do grain mixes have a roughage component to them?
No. They are usually fed as a supplement to balance the hay.
Why do grasses have a more consistent nutrient content?
b/c they don't usually lose their leaves.
What is a benefit to using beet pulp?
it doesn't contribute to huge insulin spikes.
What are some benefits to using molasses?
it is highly palatable and low in dust.
Up to how much oil a day can you feed a horse?
up to 2 cups per day (sometimes twice a day)
If a horse needs a high fat diet, what may you use instead of oil that is more palatable?
rice bran. Up to 50-70% of rice bran's energy content is in the form of fat.
What is the weight equation when using weight tape?
On a scale of 0-5, what is considered the ideal body condition?
NRC represents what?
minimum requirements for most nutrients. This doesn't mean this is whats optimal.
Most vitamins and minerals use _____ times what the NRC recommends.
Nutrient requirements are based on what?
the type of horse, age, current weight and body condition, and physiologic state.
T/F: horses will die due to lack of food before they die of lack of water.
By how much does the water need increase in a lactating horse?
By how much does the water need increase in an endurance horse?
20-400%. Depends on the extent of exercise.
T/F: endurance horses run dehydrated.
How many Mcals/day does your average 1,000lb horse need?
What are some factors that affect the maintenance DE of horses?
individual activity, physiologic state, and thermal stress.
What are some factors that affect the DE for work of horses?
level of conditioning, level of training, ability or the rider/driver, and the environment.
How much should you increase the energy requirement for a horse that has light/mild intensity work?
How much should you increase the energy requirement for a horse that has moderate/medium work?
How much should you increase the DE of a horse that has intense/severe intensity work?
For draft horses, what is their rule of thumb energy requirement?
10%M+ maintenance per hour of field work.
how much protein does a weanling need, versus a yearling?
a weanling needs 50g/Mcal of DE/day, while a yearling needs 40g/Mcal of DE/day.
What amino acid should you make sure is present in reasonable amounts?
When do gestating mares need an increase in protein?
in the last trimester.
Lactating mares need more protein when?
need more protein in early lactation.
T/F: if you're feeding your working horse a diet that has 8-10% protein and the horse eats 2-3% of its body weight daily, you don't need to supplement it's diet with more protein.
What do you see in young animals that are protein deficient?
decreased growth and development.
What do you see in mature animals that have protein deficiency?
reduced feed intake, body condition loss, poor hoof, and hair growth. Regenerative epithelium will be affected.
T/F: if you have a 25% or greater excess of protein in a feed, you will see growth depression in that animal.
T/F: most horses are fed more protein than is required.
What is the ideal calcium to phosphorous ration for a growing horse?
What is the ideal calcium to phosphorous ratio in an adult horse? What is an important thing to keep in mind?
1:1-6:1. Important to keep in mind that excess P results in binding to Ca.
Animals that have Vitamin A deficiencies are usually lacking access to what?
Should you supplement a horse with Vitamin A in the winter?
No. They have a 3-6 month supply of Vitamin A in their liver.
The quantity of vitamin A in hay is proportional to what?
Vitamin E is high where? When do its amounts decrease?
in green, growing pastures. Amounts decrease with forage maturity and storage.
Is vitamin E as readily stored as vitamin A?
What are some deficiencies seen with Vit. E deficiencies?
musculoskeletal disorders as well as equine degenerative myelopathy.
A breeding stallion needs how much energy and how much protein?
maintenance + 25% = energy and 10$ protein.
Gestating mares need how much energy and how much protein?
their energy need increases by 1.1, 1.13, and 1.2 times maintenance during months 9, 10, and 11 of gestation, respectively. Protein requirement increases to 12-14% protein grain.
What is most important for a lactating mare to receive?
water. No water=no milk.
When does peak lactation occur in a mare?
between weeks 4 and 10, usually at weeks 5-6.
How much protein do lactating mares need?
Nursing foals need how much protein? What should you make sure they have plenty of?
14-16%, for growth. Need plenty of lysine.
Weanlings and yearlings need how much protein?
Weanlings - 13% and yearlings 12%
What can feeding too much grain cause in the large colon?
The type of starch determines what?
location of digestion
Up to how much grains should you feed in one meal?