Flashcards in Nutrition and Nutrients Deck (53):
What are carbohydrates composed of?
C, H, and O
a monosaccharide has how many sugar molecules?
Fructose, glucose, galactose, or mannose are (pentoses/hexose)
Arabinose, ribose, and xylose are (hexose/pentoses)
Disaccharides have how many sugar molecules?
What are some examples of disaccharides?
lactose, maltose, or sucrose.
What are some examples of polysaccharides?
cellulose, glycogen, starch, gums, hemicellulose.
Protein is found in the highest concentration where?
in all living organisms (after water).
What are the building blocks of proteins?
What are some essential amino acids?
Taurine (in cats), tryptophan, valine, threonin, phenylalanine, lysine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, histidine, and arginine.
What are some non-essential AAs?
alanine, aspartic acid, citrulline, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, hydroxyproline, proline, serine, and tyrosine.
What amino acids are low in cereals?
lysine, methionine, and tryptophan.
Why are lipids important from a nutritional standpoint?
They (along with fats) are used to supply energy and as a source of essential fatty acids in the diet.
What makes a fatty acid saturated?
When all bonds in the C are taken by H.
What are essential fatty acids?
lipids an animal requires but is unable to synthesize themselves.
What are some common signs of deficiency in essential fatty acids?
scaly skin, necrosis of the tail, poor feathering. Not common in mammals, but common in poultry.
What are minerals?
inorganic components of the diet that cannot be decomposed or synthesized by chemical reactions.
What is the difference between macro-minerals and micro-minerals?
macrominerals are found in concentrations above 100ppm, while microminerals are found in concentrations less than 100ppm
What are some examples of macro-minerals?
calcium, phosphorous, chlorine, magnesium, potassium, sodium, and sulphur.
Most minerals found in the animal body are part of what?
What functions are minerals involved in?
enzyme activity, oxygen transport, component of vitamins, osmotic pressure, nervous system.
What are vitamins?
organic substances required by the organism in very small amounts.
Which vitamin is not synthesized by humans, guinea-pigs, or monkeys?
Where are most vitamins stored?
in the liver. They are in the kidney and spleen in lesser amounts.
Why are vitamins important in milk and colostrum?
Because they are the sole source of nutrition for young animals.
What is more common, vitamin deficiencies or toxicity?
What does Vit. A deficiency lead to?
What does Vit. D deficiency lead to?
What does Vit K deficiency lead to?
What is required in the highest amount in animal diets?
dietary energy. Carbs being the most important source of energy.
What is the equation for digestible energy?
DE = GE feed - GE Feces
What is the equation for metabolisable energy?
ME = DE - GE (urine+gases)
Is water considered a nutrient?
what are some ways in which animals can lose water?
urine, feces, lungs, skin surface, and milk.
What causes water losses to increase?
high protein, high mineral salts, high fiber, and high intakes. Also lactation and heat.
Good quality water has how much of dissolvent solids?
less than 0.25%
What are the common minerals found in water?
chloride, sodium, calcium, magnesium, sulphates, and bicarbonates.
What solids in water lead to toxicity before they affect the taste?
nitrates, fluorine, and heavy metals.
What is the most common analysis for feed samples?
How is dry matter determined?
by drying a sample in an oven until a constant weight.
What is the dry matter equation?
DM = (dry weight/fresh weight)*100
What is the average protein content in feedstuffs?
How do you get the crude fat from a diet?
you extract it by using ethyl ether. Quantitative info.
How do you get crude fibre?
involves boiling a known amount of ground feed sample in a weak acid solution, filtration, boiling in a weak alkali solution, filtration, and drying until a constant weight.
What compounds are included in crude fibre?
cellulose, hemicellulose, xylans, lignin, and other compounds associated with fibrous carbs.
Can you determine the specific mineral content with ash?
No. you have to do other analysis to determine this.
When you burn feed at 300-600 degrees C, what do you have left?
Just metallic oxides (this is ash).
What is the nitrogen free extract?
estimation of the readily available carbohydrates.
How is energy calculated?
Using an oxygen bomb calorimeter.
What are the 2 methods that are replacing CF and that are more accurate in defining the carb content?
NDF and ADF
What is natural detergent fiber (NDF) a predictor of? Are low or high values desired?
It is a predictor of voluntary intake b/c it provides bulk or fill. Low values are desired.
What are acid detergent fibers?
the least digestible plant components, including cellulose and lignin. Inversely related to digestibility.