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Flashcards in Erythrocytes Deck (52):
1

Name 3 causes of icteric plasma

1. Fasting bilirubinemia in horses and cattle
2. Prehepatic issue- increased hemolysis of rbc, bilirubin levels rising. Low HCT. INCREASED HEMOLYSIS + BILIRUBINEMIA
3. Hepatic issue - liver disease - liver not picking up unconjugated bilirubin. Normal HCT. INCREASE IN LIVER VALUES + BILURUBINEMIA

2

2 causes of hemolyzed plasma

1. Intravascular hemolysis (true hemoglobinemia)
2. Secondary to sample collection (fragile cells, rough handling, lipemia, long storage time)

3

How do you calculate reticulocyte concentration

Number of retics/1000×100

4

What are reticulocytes made out of

Precipitation of ribosomal RNA and proteins

5

Where does maturation begin and where is it completed for erythrocytes

cats dogs and pigs maturation begins in the bone marrow and it is completed in the peripheral blood and the spleen

6

What is the normal reticulocyte percentage

0-1.5%

7

How do you calculate corrected/absolute reticulocyte count in cases of anemia using a hematocrit and red blood cell count

Corrected HCT = (HCT/mean normal HCT for species) x raw retic count in percent

Absolute Retic Count using RBC = RBC count per microliter x raw retic count (fraction)

8

What is reference retic concentration for dogs and cats, cows, and horses

0 to 60,000 cells per microliters

Cows/Horses 0

9

What are those reference ranges for a
non-regenerative anemia two very poor regeneration
non-regenerative too poorly regenerative anemia
regenerative anemia to mild or moderate output
Maximo regenerative response

Non to very poor regen 0 to 10,000 cells per microliter
nine region too poorly region 10,000 to 60,000 cells per microliter region anemia to mild or moderate output 60,000 to 200,000 cells per microliter
maximal regenerative response 200,000 to 500,000 cells per microliter

10

Where does hematopoiesis occur in:
domestic animals
birds
reptiles
amphibians
and fish

Domestic animals in the bone marrow and lymphoid organs
birds bone marrow
reptiles bone marrow and sometimes spleen
amphibians = kidney liver spleen bone marrow
fish = kidney and spleen

11

Define and Name 3 causes of lipemic blood

Excessive lipids. Presence of chylomicrons amd very low density proteins

1. Postprandial
2. Diseases - endocrinopathies (diabetes mellitis, hypothyroid, hyperadrenocorticism), PLN (protein losing nephropathy), obesity, cholestasis, starvation
3. Hereditary
-idiopathic hyperlipidemia in Schnauzers
-lipoprotein lipase deficiency in cats

12

What is the average RBC lifespan?

3-5mo

13

what are the phases of stem cell differentiation?

stem cell - progenitor cells - precursor cells (blasts) - mature cells

14

What stage of erythropoiesis has no visible nucleolus

Prorubricyte

15

What stage of erythropoiesis is the most mature stage in which mitosis can still occur

Rubricyte

16

What stages of erythropoiesis is the most mature stage containing a nucleus

Metarubricyte

17

What are the phases of erythropoiesis

Rubriblast, prorubricyte, rubricyte, metarubricyte, retic

18

What is the average red blood cell lifespan in the dog cat horse and cattle

Dog 100 cat 70 horse 150 cattle 150

19

Describe some characteristics of avian reptile Camelid and horse blood smears

Avians and reptiles have nucleated red blood cells they're ovals the ends of the avian red blood cells are a little bit more pointed then reptiles

llamas have elliptical red blood cells and they don't have much central pallor

horses their red blood cells are likely to be shaped irregularly and lack Central pallor

20

Define hematocrit

Percentage of blood volume filled by erythrocytes

21

What is Hgb

Blood hemoglobin content

it's the grams of hemoglobin per deciliter of blood (which is 100 ml)

Most direct measure of 02 carrying capacity

22

What is the equation for mean cell volume

(PCV ÷ RBC) × 10

Femtoliters 10 exponent -15
Femto is one Quandrillionth

23

What is MCH

Mean cell hemoglobin

it's the quantity of hemoglobin per average erythrocyte expressed in picograms the equation is

(Hgb ÷ rbc) ×10

24

What is MCHC

Mean cell hemoglobin concentration
(Hgb ÷ HCT) ×100

it's cellular hemoglobin concentration per average interest site expressed as grams per deciliter

25

What is hypochromasia associated with.

Iron deficiency. Increases Central pallor hyperchromasia decreases Central pallor

26

How do you calculate corrected white blood cell count

(Measured white blood cell count × 100) ÷ (100 + nRBC)

27

What breeds are prone to anemia caused by autoimmune problems

German shepherds Dobermans and Rottweilers

the kidneys released erythropoietin the marrow churns out more red blood cells but it can't keep up with the demand so it starts releasing meticulous site

28

What species are rouleaux formations normal in

Horses

29

what is a common cause of agglutination? what breed is it commonly found in?

IMHA, Dobermans
-Immunoglobulins (protein) bind to RBC surface

30

another word for reticulocyte, and what can naming depend on?

polychromatic cell
new methyl blue - retic
romanowsky stain - polychromatic cell

31

what's a polychromatophil?

Immature RBC that stains bluish-red due to combined presence of hemoglobin and RNA

32

spherocytes are often seen in what disease? describe the appearance of spherocytes

IMHA

smaller diameter than normal, lack central pallor

33

in what species are elliptocytes normal? describe them

elliptical in shape, generally flat. normal in nonmammals like avians and reptiles and camelidae family

34

What does an inflammatory leukogram look like

Neutrophilia
monocytosis

35

Breed prone to IMHA

Spaniel

36

Why does a regenerative anemia with hemolysis Leukogram look like

-Decreased hematocrit
-reticulocytosis
-inflammatory Luke Graham

37

Babesia Gibsoni tonight is associated with what breed

American pitbull

38

Name an important cause of hemolytic anemia in Cows

Anaplasma

39

Name three immune related causes of hemolytic anemia

IMHA
SLE (Systemic lupus erythematosus)
Neonatal isoerythrolysis (foals)

40

Name 2 viral causes of hemolytic anemia

Feline leukemia virus feLV
equine infectious anemia

41

Name the most common cause of infectious anemia in cats

Mycoplasma

42

describe leptospirosis

Renal failure
liver failure
Zoonotic
Hemolysis
over 200 strains
dogs can be carriers

43

Name two things that can be seen on blood smear that would point to IMHA

Spherocytes
agglutination

44

In which species are Rouleaux formation normal

Horses and cats

45

What do positive and negative coombs test indicate

+ supports IMHA negative does not rule it out

46

What does the Coggins test find

Anti-bodies against EIA

47

What is the most common cause of bone marrow depression

Chronic renal disease

48

What telecom bone marrow depression besides renal disease

Endocrine diseases such as hypothyroidism and hypoadrenocorticism

49

Name 4 causes of nonregen anemia besides renal and endocrine diseases

Anemia of chronic diseases or inflammation (most common anemia and domestic animals) and

cytotoxic bone marrow damage

Myeloproliferative disorders (leukemia, multiple myeloma, metastatic lymphoma)

Infectious (felv, panleukopenia virus, ehrlichia)

50

Lab findings in a non-regenerative anemia

Normocytic
Chronic inflamm leuko
-mature neutrophilia
-lympho or monocytosis

51

3 causes cytotoxic bone marrow damage

Plants - bracken fern
Radiation
Drugs (chemotherapeutic, NSAIDs, ESTROGEN TOXICITY, etc.)

52

And what breed is myeloproliferative neoplasm, and then and what condition does it cause

Burmese Mountain dog polycythemia increased erythropoiesis hematocrit and the rbc mass