Flashcards in Ethics exam Deck (37):
6 principles of Utilitarianism
1. Greatest happiness
3. May not know consequences
4. Equal weight of everyone's interests and needs
6. Comprimised generally held moral views
Rightness of actions solely depend on the consequences
Who said this "An action is good if it brings about the greatest happiness in the greatest number of people" ?
Explain greatest happiness
The right action is the one that produces the greatest happiness for the greatest amount of people.
What consequences does the action have, good or bad?
Explain unknown consequences
We may not know the consequences that will occur after the action
The factors that direct our conduct and practice
The capacity to think, decide and act freely and independently without hindrance.
What is equal weight?
Taking everyones needs and interests into equal consideration in the scenario
Equal treatment of all rivals and disputants for fairness
7 principles of deontology
1. Act out of duty
3. Unconditional worth
4. The categorical imperative
5. Principle of respect
7. Rights and interests of the individual - not a comparison
The rightness of actions does not depend on consequences, but the kind of action it is.
What is acting out of duty?
A duty to do the right thing defined by rationale and universally moral rules.
Explain an act which is non-consequential.
The rightness of an act does not depend on how many people are happy
Define the categorical imperative
Act only on that maxim through which should be a universal law
Define principle of respect
Treat human beings as an end to themselves, rather than a means to and end.
Explain the principle of respect
Dont use people
What is unconditional worth?
An individuals existence is important and valuable - you are just as precious as anyone else
What is the right of an individual?
Just concerns the individual, no comparisons are made to other people.
What are the 4 moral principles?
What is virtue ethics?
Acting morally to become a virtous character
What is beneficence?
Doing good for others
In terms of healthcare, how should HCP be beneficent?
Balancing the benefits of treatment against the risk an costs. A HCP should always do what benefits the patient.
What is non-maleficence?
Avoiding the causation of harm
In terms of healthcare, how should a HCP be non-maleficient?
A HCP should not harm the patient. All treatment has some degree of harm, but the harm should not be disproportianal to the benefits.
What is justice?
People should be treated equally, impartially and fairly without prejudice.
Not taking an individuals wishes into consideration, in terms of their welfare.
4 Advantages of shared decision making
1. Improve patient health outcome
2. Reduces litigation
3. Improves patient safety
4. Encourages self-reliance
4 challenges in patient centered care
1. time constraint
2. doctors should be able to explain values underpinning recommendations
3. involves understanding not just giving info
4. willingness of patient
Elements of an autonomous act
1. carried out with understanding
2. carried out intentionally
3. carried out freely without constraint or influence
8 challenges to a patients autonomy
2. physical barriers
3. environmental barrier
4. social/instituitonal barrier
5. poor information
6. Lack of understanding from HCP
7. Cognitive deficit
8. Psychological issues
Explain lack of capacity
Disturbance/impairment in the function of the brain/mind
In the Mental Capacity Act, which 2 people can be designated to make decisions?
1. Lasting power of attorney
2. Court appointed deputy
Who does the deprivation of liberty safeguard apply to?
1. Over 18
2. Mental disability/disorder
3. Lacks capacity to give informed consent reguarding treatment
Definition of confidentiality
When an individual discloses information to another individual in circumstances where they expect the info to be held in confidence
When can legal action be taken when info is breached?
1. Info is personal, private, intimate
2. Breaching will cause harm
3. Info was given in confidence