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Flashcards in Ethics exam Deck (37):
1

6 principles of Utilitarianism

1. Greatest happiness
2. Consequences
3. May not know consequences
4. Equal weight of everyone's interests and needs
5. Autonomy
6. Comprimised generally held moral views

2

Define utilitarianism

Rightness of actions solely depend on the consequences

3

Who said this "An action is good if it brings about the greatest happiness in the greatest number of people" ?

Warburton 1992

4

Explain greatest happiness

The right action is the one that produces the greatest happiness for the greatest amount of people.

5

Explain consequences

What consequences does the action have, good or bad?

6

Explain unknown consequences

We may not know the consequences that will occur after the action

7

Define morality

The factors that direct our conduct and practice

8

Define autonomy

The capacity to think, decide and act freely and independently without hindrance.

9

What is equal weight?

Taking everyones needs and interests into equal consideration in the scenario

10

Define impartiality

Equal treatment of all rivals and disputants for fairness

11

7 principles of deontology

1. Act out of duty
2. Non-consequential
3. Unconditional worth
4. The categorical imperative
5. Principle of respect
6. Autonomy
7. Rights and interests of the individual - not a comparison

12

Define deontology

The rightness of actions does not depend on consequences, but the kind of action it is.

13

What is acting out of duty?

A duty to do the right thing defined by rationale and universally moral rules.

14

Explain an act which is non-consequential.

The rightness of an act does not depend on how many people are happy

15

Define the categorical imperative

Act only on that maxim through which should be a universal law

16

Define principle of respect

Treat human beings as an end to themselves, rather than a means to and end.

17

Explain the principle of respect

Dont use people

18

What is unconditional worth?

An individuals existence is important and valuable - you are just as precious as anyone else

19

What is the right of an individual?

Just concerns the individual, no comparisons are made to other people.

20

What are the 4 moral principles?

1. Autonomy
2. Non-maleficence
3. Beneficence
4. Justice

21

What is virtue ethics?

Acting morally to become a virtous character

22

What is beneficence?

Doing good for others

23

In terms of healthcare, how should HCP be beneficent?

Balancing the benefits of treatment against the risk an costs. A HCP should always do what benefits the patient.

24

What is non-maleficence?

Avoiding the causation of harm

25

In terms of healthcare, how should a HCP be non-maleficient?

A HCP should not harm the patient. All treatment has some degree of harm, but the harm should not be disproportianal to the benefits.

26

What is justice?

People should be treated equally, impartially and fairly without prejudice.

27

Define paternalism

Not taking an individuals wishes into consideration, in terms of their welfare.

28

4 Advantages of shared decision making

1. Improve patient health outcome
2. Reduces litigation
3. Improves patient safety
4. Encourages self-reliance

29

4 challenges in patient centered care

1. time constraint
2. doctors should be able to explain values underpinning recommendations
3. involves understanding not just giving info
4. willingness of patient

30

Elements of an autonomous act

1. carried out with understanding
2. carried out intentionally
3. carried out freely without constraint or influence

31

8 challenges to a patients autonomy

1. Paternalism
2. physical barriers
3. environmental barrier
4. social/instituitonal barrier
5. poor information
6. Lack of understanding from HCP
7. Cognitive deficit
8. Psychological issues

32

Explain lack of capacity

Disturbance/impairment in the function of the brain/mind

33

In the Mental Capacity Act, which 2 people can be designated to make decisions?

1. Lasting power of attorney
2. Court appointed deputy

34

Who does the deprivation of liberty safeguard apply to?

1. Over 18
2. Mental disability/disorder
3. Lacks capacity to give informed consent reguarding treatment

35

Definition of confidentiality

When an individual discloses information to another individual in circumstances where they expect the info to be held in confidence

36

When can legal action be taken when info is breached?

1. Info is personal, private, intimate
2. Breaching will cause harm
3. Info was given in confidence

37

What is the confidentiality model?

1. Protect
2. Inform
3. Provide choice
4. Improve