Flashcards in MCQ semester 2 exam Deck (207):
how does the economic model address deaths as?
according to the economic model, how can life be postponed?
if more resources are invested in prolonging life
in what model is the patient not responsible for their condition?
what is the only cause in biomedical model?
biological factor; virus, pathogen
what are the 4 factors which affect decisions in the health belief model?
1. percieved susceptability
2. percieved severity
3. percieved benefits and barriers of treatment
4. cues to action
for someone to acknowledge a health problem, what 2 things must they think in terms of the health belief model?
1. percieved as severe
2. benefits outweigh barriers
2 theories of health behaviour
1. health belief model
2. theory of planned behaviour
according to the theory of planned behaviour, what 3 things are our intentions shaped by?
1. attitudes toward behaviour
2. subjective norms
3. behavioural control
what is cognitive dissonance? give an eg
holding 2 cognitive opinions which are psychologically insonconsistent and cause tension
smoking is bad - but i still do it
what are todays stressors?
psychological - heavy workload
what is psychoneuroimmunology?
study of how psychological factors can affect the immune system
In the stressful disposition study, what traits did cardiac patients share?
which personality type has a suggested higher associated risk of heart disease & high blood pressure?
describe traits of personalality B
laid back, easy going, relaxed, not ambitious
describe traits of personalality C
suppression of strong emotion (anger)
lack of control
what scale measures stress using stressful life events?
social readjustment rating scale
what score on the SRRS gives an 80% stress score?
3 weaknesses of the SRRS?
1. correlation is not causation
2. doesnt include daily stressors
3. individual differences
3 components of depression
what is a coping strategy for women who have depression?
admitting the problem to help the situation
who did a study about learned helplessness?
what is learned helplessness?
when you try but you keep failing so you give up
most popular treatment for anxiety and depression
Cognitive behavioural therapy
what theory is the CBT based on ?
a) activating event
b) individual beleifs
c) individual emotions
3 roles of Public Health England
1. health promotion
2. health protection
2. healthcare improvement
who wrote the social model to health?
Dahlgreen & whitehead
5 layers of social model to health
1. age, gender
2. individual lifestyle factors
3. social & community networks
4. structural factors
5. environmental factors
what is functionalism?
everyone working together
what is marxism/conflict theory?
conflict between the classes; capitalists & workers
which health model does the marxist theory support?
in what areas is there a higher rate of physical & mental illness?
higher levels of inequality from rich to poor
what condition cant the sick role be adapted to?
what is the medicalisation thesis?
medical professionals are defining more behaviours as medical issues - this dominates over our lives
who wrote the theory of iatrogenesis?
what is the theory of iatrogenesis?
harmful & detrimental effects that medical interventions can have on people
what is clinical iatrogenesis?
direct harm from treatment, drugs etc
what is social iatrogenesis?
blind belief in HCP. patients dont take responsbility.
what is cultural iatrogenesis?
people cannot cope with normal conditions that cause pain/suffering - turn to medical treatments
3 biographical disruptions caused by chronic illess
1. self -identity
2. future plans
3, everyday life
model for coping strategy
self-regulatory model of illness behaviour
3 stages of self-regulatory model
what is mental health? (4)
1. realising own ability
2. work productivily
3. cope with normal stressors
4. contribute to community
what is ill mental health?
alterations in thinking, mood or behaviour associated with stress/ impaired functioning
when does stress become distress?
1. lasts too long
2. occurs too often
3. too severe
5 types of depressive conditions
- seasonal affective disorder
- major depressive
which type of depressive condition is continious
what type of disorder is OCD
4 types of anxiety disorder
2. general anxiety
what is PTSD?
post traumatic stress disorder
what is shizophrenia
a discrepancy between thinking and feeling
which 2 places is shizophrenia more common?
- minor ethnic groups
2 groups of shizophrenia
+ve (acute) and -ve (chronic)
which type of schiz has more dramatic symptoms?
which type of schiz causes the most problems and is difficult to treat?
what is eugenics?
improving the human population by breeding those with desirable characteristics
what year did the universal declaration of human rights come about?
what year was the NHS founded?
In verbal exchanges, the percentage of the meaning that is commonly lost is:
In healthcare globally the allocation of resources is based on:
the consumer willingness to pay
In Piaget’s stages of cognitive development, in the pre-operational stage a child:
influenced by how things look rather then logical reasoning
what type of care are ambulatory trusts?
Spatial problems, a symptom of dementia, is referred to as:
what is direct discrimination?
treating someone less favourably
what is indirect discrimination?
putting someone at a disadvantage compared to others
what are aphasia, agnosia, apraxia symptoms of ?
what is aphasia
what is agnosia?
what is apraxia?
skilled action/spatial problems
which are neurotic plaques?
abnormal amounts of protein
cause of alzheimers disease
cerebral atrophy & neurotic plaques
major symptoms of alzheimers
what are lewy bodies?
abnormal structures in nerve cells in brain
what type of dementia arises from focal damage to the frontal and temporal lobes?
what dementia has symptoms of hallucination?
cause of korsakoff's syndrome
excessive alcohol intake
dementia with symptoms of emotion and social functioning
cause of frontal-temporal lobe dementia?
degeneration of frontal tobe
major symptoms & cause of vascular dementia
symptoms = concenetration + communciation
cause: problem with blood flow to the brain = due to stroke, hypertension + diabetes
dementia with symptom of personality/emotion
what does damage to the frontal lobe cause- dementia?
what does damage to the occupital lobe cause- dementia?
what does damage to the temporal lobe cause- dementia?
difficulties with skilled actions
what does damage to the ftemporal lobe cause- dementia?
declining general knowledge
what is personal detraction?
negative interaction with someone
what is malignant social positioning?
an effect on someone which causes them to feel anxious
equations for person centred care
name of drug administered to treat HIV - but had bad side effects
what 4 things are needed for transmission of HIV?
what 4 groups is HIV1 classed into and what is the major?
M - major
most common subtype of HIV in sub-Saharan africa?
most common subtype of HIV in Europe?
which 2 immunological responses act with HIV?
what do cytotoxic T cells do (CD4)
inhibit HIV replication directly
what do helper T cells do (CD8)
lowers viral load
3 stages of HIV infection
2. clinical latency
in which stage can the acute retroviral syndrome occur?
which test for HIV is the fastest - how long?
Ab/Ag test - 20mins
CD4 count in people with serious risk of opportunistic infections with HIV
3 mechanisms of anti-retroviral medication
- block reverse transcriptase
- prevent viral and host cell membrane from joining
difference between PEP and PREP
prep is taken before exposure to the virus
what is a purging disorder? give methods
extreme measures to rid body weight by
2 types of anorexia
1. restricting - limiting calories
which 2 eating disorders cause no change in normal weight?
purging + bulimia
which eating disorder leads to being underweight
which eating disorder leads to being overweight
which hormones are involved in anorexia?
serotonin + dopamine
which hormone affects diet?
what is there a deficiency in anorexia
what personality traits do bulimics have?
what personality traists do anorexics have?
for which eating disorder is an antidepressent drug administered?
which ED is CBT used?
which ED is psychosocial interventions used as a treatment?
6 parts of definition of communication skills
- goal directed
- appropriate to situation
- social behaviours
3 steps in model of communication
4 stages of calgory cambridge model
1. initiate session
2. gather info
3. explain & plan
4. close the session
what other 2 things must be done in the CCmodel
how much % of message is derived from facial expressions?
what is pseudo-listening ?
acting interested - not listening
difference between specific Q and closed Q;
closed is yes or no
specific is short; number etc.
why are hypothetical questions used?
to check understanding
which type of Q are used to get acceptance of your views?
definition of prejudgement
opinion held about someone, something or some group
without good reason or adequate knowledge or experience
definiton of stereotyping
seeing all members of a group as having similar traits rather than individual personalities
definition of conditioning?
shaping behaviour by manipulating reinforcement and punishment
what do all behaviourists think about behaviour ?
what 2 ways do behaviouritst think we learn?
1, classical coniditoniing
2. operant conditioning
which is more effective, +ve or -ve reinforcement?
which experiment is used in classical conditioning?
in pavlov exp; what was the unconditioned response?
in pavlov exp; what was the neutral stimulus? what did this become?
bell- conditioned stimulus
in pavlov exp; what was the unconditioned stimulus?
what is operant conditioning about?
the consequences of our actions determine whether or not our actions are repeated
what is aversion therapy?
which theory was Bandura's bobo doll study testing?
the social learning theory
what does the SLT suggest we learn through?
what is social facilitation?
being in the prescence of others influences our behaviour
what did Asch do?
exp on lines
who did the electructing exp?
what is deindividuation ?
when social influence overrides our personal values & individual identity
what is audience inhibition?
bystander behaviour- fear of embarrassment or doing something wrong
what is diffusion of responsibility?
bystander behaviour- assumption that someone else will act
what is confusion of responsibilitu?
bystander behaviour- other bystanders may think youve caused the situation
what is cost of intervention?
bystander behaviour- not helping due to the costs - court, danger
in which century and period of time was human behaviour compared to animals and had a biological perspective?
19th - Industrial revolution
what occured in the medievil times?
children seen as adults
what period of time were children said to be born evil and they must be raised effectively?
wht occured in the age of reason?
maturationist beleif - children born with innate morality
what occured in the age of enlightenment?
tabula rasa = children born with an inbuilt mechanism - all knowledge comes from experience
2 social development theories
psychosexual = freud
psychosocial = erikson
what is the psychosocial theory about?
at each stage the child aquires attributes + skills resulting from successful negotiation of psychological conflict
what is stage 1 of the psychosocial thoery?
trust vs mistrust
PST (psychosocial theory) : what stage occurs at adolescence?
identity vs role confusion
PST (psychosocial theory) : what stage occurs at ages 3-6?
initiative vs guilt
PST (psychosocial theory) : when do children begin to assert independennce - how old?
stage 2 - autonomy vs shame & doubt
what occurs in the industry vs inferiority stage in terms of dependency ?
develop pride in accomplishments
PST (psychosocial theory) : stage in middle adulthood
generativity vs stagnation
PST (psychosocial theory) : stage in early adulthood
intimacy vs isolation
PST (psychosocial theory) : who is in the integrity vs despair stage?
what does the biological theory; ethology state when the critical period for learning is?
1st 3 years
who developed the cognitive development thoery?
in which of piaget's stages can the child think hypothetically?
4. formal operation stage
what occurs in the concrete operations stage?
piaget = what occurs in the sensori-motor stage?
sensory + motor
which of piagets stages is visual?
which learnign theory takes cultural values into consideration? who?
socio-cultural theory - lev vygotsky
3 levels in Kohlburgs development of moral reasoning theory?
development of moral reasoning theory- Which level bases judgements on consequences?
development of moral reasoning theory- which stage conforms to conventional standards of right and wrong?
development of moral reasoning theory- which stage involves personal views rather than conventional standards?
4 stages in John Bowlbys theory of attachment
3 attachement types in Ainsworth and Bell
2. insure avoidant
3. insecure resistant
which attachement type had stemmed from unresponsive care?
which atrachment type had stemmed from responsive care?
what attachmen type stemmed from inconsistent care?
what is classical conditioning?
where a previous neutral stimulus becomes associaited with a particular response
who has a higher pain threshold, introverts or extroverts?
3 responses systems to fear
1. overt behavioural expression
2. covert feelings + thoughts
3. physiological arousal
what is an active strategy in terms of coping mechanisms?
being able to control pain
what is an passive strategy in terms of coping mechanisms?
helplessness- relying on others
2 psychological strategies to control pain?
4 leadership styles
3 areas of action centred leadership model?
what is the continuum of leadership behaviour model?
- freedom giving by mananger
- authority of manager
what arose in the era of the market?
providers, purchasers - NHS trusts
who was in charge of GP funds in the era of the market?
in what era did patient centred care come about?
era of all change
when was the 10 year plan started?
era of all change
what year was NICE founded?
which health policy was about patient centred care being high quality, for everyone?
high quality care for all
what did the health and social care act do?
implement regulating services
who commisions CCG?
who is the CCG led by?what areas do they control?
clinicians - local
which model descibes a system where the governnment allocates resources, HC is a basic human right and everyone is entitled to the HC system?
supply side approach
apart from the UK, where else has a supply-side mode?
who is medicaid for?
who is medicare for?
elderly + disabled
what models does the UK national health insurance mode; use?
both bismark + beveridge
what is reffered to as beveridge?
which type of taxation affects poor people
which type of taxation affects rich people?
what is deficity financing?
borrowing and spending
what are earmarked taxes?
taxes on specific things; cigs
what type of private insurance is used i the UK by those in higher income groups?
which type of private care included one that uses user charges?
what is supplementary cover?
covers user charges