MCQ semester 2 exam Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MCQ semester 2 exam Deck (207):
1

how does the economic model address deaths as?

suicide

2

according to the economic model, how can life be postponed?

if more resources are invested in prolonging life

3

in what model is the patient not responsible for their condition?

biomedical

4

what is the only cause in biomedical model?

biological factor; virus, pathogen

5

what are the 4 factors which affect decisions in the health belief model?

1. percieved susceptability
2. percieved severity
3. percieved benefits and barriers of treatment
4. cues to action

6

for someone to acknowledge a health problem, what 2 things must they think in terms of the health belief model?

1. percieved as severe
2. benefits outweigh barriers

7

2 theories of health behaviour

1. health belief model
2. theory of planned behaviour

8

according to the theory of planned behaviour, what 3 things are our intentions shaped by?

1. attitudes toward behaviour
2. subjective norms
3. behavioural control

9

what is cognitive dissonance? give an eg

holding 2 cognitive opinions which are psychologically insonconsistent and cause tension

smoking is bad - but i still do it

10

what are todays stressors?

psychological - heavy workload

11

what is psychoneuroimmunology?

study of how psychological factors can affect the immune system

12

In the stressful disposition study, what traits did cardiac patients share?

1. male
2. impatient
3. ambitious
4. competitive

13

which personality type has a suggested higher associated risk of heart disease & high blood pressure?

type A

14

describe traits of personalality B

laid back, easy going, relaxed, not ambitious

15

describe traits of personalality C

obeys norms
helpless, hopeless
lack assertiveness
suppression of strong emotion (anger)
avoids conflict
lack of control

16

what scale measures stress using stressful life events?

social readjustment rating scale

17

what score on the SRRS gives an 80% stress score?

>300

18

3 weaknesses of the SRRS?

1. correlation is not causation
2. doesnt include daily stressors
3. individual differences

19

3 components of depression

1. cognitive
2. physiological
3. behavioural

20

what is a coping strategy for women who have depression?

admitting the problem to help the situation

21

who did a study about learned helplessness?

Gross

22

what is learned helplessness?

when you try but you keep failing so you give up

23

most popular treatment for anxiety and depression

Cognitive behavioural therapy

24

what theory is the CBT based on ?

ABC
a) activating event
b) individual beleifs
c) individual emotions

25

3 roles of Public Health England

1. health promotion
2. health protection
2. healthcare improvement

26

who wrote the social model to health?

Dahlgreen & whitehead

27

5 layers of social model to health

1. age, gender
2. individual lifestyle factors
3. social & community networks
4. structural factors
5. environmental factors

28

what is functionalism?

everyone working together

29

what is marxism/conflict theory?

conflict between the classes; capitalists & workers

30

which health model does the marxist theory support?

biomedical

31

in what areas is there a higher rate of physical & mental illness?

higher levels of inequality from rich to poor

32

what condition cant the sick role be adapted to?

chronic conditions

33

what is the medicalisation thesis?

medical professionals are defining more behaviours as medical issues - this dominates over our lives

34

who wrote the theory of iatrogenesis?

ivan ilich

35

what is the theory of iatrogenesis?

harmful & detrimental effects that medical interventions can have on people

36

what is clinical iatrogenesis?

direct harm from treatment, drugs etc

37

what is social iatrogenesis?

blind belief in HCP. patients dont take responsbility.

38

what is cultural iatrogenesis?

people cannot cope with normal conditions that cause pain/suffering - turn to medical treatments

39

3 biographical disruptions caused by chronic illess

1. self -identity
2. future plans
3, everyday life

40

model for coping strategy

self-regulatory model of illness behaviour

41

3 stages of self-regulatory model

1. interpretation
2. coping
3. appraisal

42

what is mental health? (4)

1. realising own ability
2. work productivily
3. cope with normal stressors
4. contribute to community

43

what is ill mental health?

alterations in thinking, mood or behaviour associated with stress/ impaired functioning

44

when does stress become distress?

1. lasts too long
2. occurs too often
3. too severe

45

5 types of depressive conditions

- seasonal affective disorder
- postnatal
- bipolar
- major depressive
- dysrhythmic

46

which type of depressive condition is continious

dysrthythmic

47

what type of disorder is OCD

anxiety

48

4 types of anxiety disorder

1. panic
2. general anxiety
3. phobias
4. social

49

what is PTSD?

post traumatic stress disorder

50

what is shizophrenia

a discrepancy between thinking and feeling

51

which 2 places is shizophrenia more common?

- city
- minor ethnic groups

52

2 groups of shizophrenia

+ve (acute) and -ve (chronic)

53

which type of schiz has more dramatic symptoms?

+ve

54

which type of schiz causes the most problems and is difficult to treat?

-ve

55

what is eugenics?

improving the human population by breeding those with desirable characteristics

56

what year did the universal declaration of human rights come about?

1948

57

what year was the NHS founded?

1948

58

In verbal exchanges, the percentage of the meaning that is commonly lost is:

40-60%

59

In healthcare globally the allocation of resources is based on:

the consumer willingness to pay

60

In Piaget’s stages of cognitive development, in the pre-operational stage a child:

influenced by how things look rather then logical reasoning

61

what type of care are ambulatory trusts?

secondary

62

Spatial problems, a symptom of dementia, is referred to as:

apraxia

63

what is direct discrimination?

treating someone less favourably

64

what is indirect discrimination?

putting someone at a disadvantage compared to others

65

what are aphasia, agnosia, apraxia symptoms of ?

dementia

66

what is aphasia

language problems

67

what is agnosia?

knowledge problems

68

what is apraxia?

skilled action/spatial problems

69

which are neurotic plaques?

abnormal amounts of protein

70

cause of alzheimers disease

cerebral atrophy & neurotic plaques

71

major symptoms of alzheimers

memory/language

72

what are lewy bodies?

abnormal structures in nerve cells in brain

73

what type of dementia arises from focal damage to the frontal and temporal lobes?

Pick's disease

74

what dementia has symptoms of hallucination?

Lewy bodies

75

cause of korsakoff's syndrome

excessive alcohol intake

76

dementia with symptoms of emotion and social functioning

Pick's

77

cause of frontal-temporal lobe dementia?

degeneration of frontal tobe

78

major symptoms & cause of vascular dementia

symptoms = concenetration + communciation

cause: problem with blood flow to the brain = due to stroke, hypertension + diabetes

79

dementia with symptom of personality/emotion

frontal temporal

80

what does damage to the frontal lobe cause- dementia?

repetitive actions

81

what does damage to the occupital lobe cause- dementia?

visual

82

what does damage to the temporal lobe cause- dementia?

difficulties with skilled actions

83

what does damage to the ftemporal lobe cause- dementia?

declining general knowledge

84

what is personal detraction?

negative interaction with someone

85

what is malignant social positioning?

an effect on someone which causes them to feel anxious

86

equations for person centred care

PCC= V+I+P+S

87

name of drug administered to treat HIV - but had bad side effects

azidothymidine

88

what 4 things are needed for transmission of HIV?

quality
quantity
viral present
route

89

what 4 groups is HIV1 classed into and what is the major?

M - major
NOP

90

most common subtype of HIV in sub-Saharan africa?

C

91

most common subtype of HIV in Europe?

B

92

which 2 immunological responses act with HIV?

cellular
humoral

93

what do cytotoxic T cells do (CD4)

inhibit HIV replication directly

94

what do helper T cells do (CD8)

lowers viral load

95

3 stages of HIV infection

1. acute
2. clinical latency
3. AIDS

96

in which stage can the acute retroviral syndrome occur?

acute infection

97

which test for HIV is the fastest - how long?

Ab/Ag test - 20mins

98

CD4 count in people with serious risk of opportunistic infections with HIV

<200

99

3 mechanisms of anti-retroviral medication

- block reverse transcriptase
-block protease
- prevent viral and host cell membrane from joining

100

difference between PEP and PREP

prep is taken before exposure to the virus

101

what is a purging disorder? give methods

extreme measures to rid body weight by
- vomiting
- laxatives
-excessive exercise

102

2 types of anorexia

1. restricting - limiting calories
2. binge-eating/purging

103

which 2 eating disorders cause no change in normal weight?

purging + bulimia

104

which eating disorder leads to being underweight

anorexia

105

which eating disorder leads to being overweight

binge eating

106

which hormones are involved in anorexia?

serotonin + dopamine

107

which hormone affects diet?

leptin

108

what is there a deficiency in anorexia

Zn

109

what personality traits do bulimics have?

impulsive

110

what personality traists do anorexics have?

perfectionists

111

for which eating disorder is an antidepressent drug administered?

bulimia

112

which ED is CBT used?

bulimia

113

which ED is psychosocial interventions used as a treatment?

anorexia

114

6 parts of definition of communication skills

- goal directed
- interrelated
- appropriate to situation
- social behaviours
- learned
- control

115

3 steps in model of communication

1. perception
2. mediation
3.action

116

4 stages of calgory cambridge model

1. initiate session
2. gather info
3. explain & plan
4. close the session

117

what other 2 things must be done in the CCmodel

build relationship
provide structure

118

how much % of message is derived from facial expressions?

55%

119

what is pseudo-listening ?

acting interested - not listening

120

difference between specific Q and closed Q;

closed is yes or no
specific is short; number etc.

121

why are hypothetical questions used?

to check understanding

122

which type of Q are used to get acceptance of your views?

leading Q

123

definition of prejudgement

opinion held about someone, something or some group
without good reason or adequate knowledge or experience

124

definiton of stereotyping

seeing all members of a group as having similar traits rather than individual personalities

125

definition of conditioning?

shaping behaviour by manipulating reinforcement and punishment

126

what do all behaviourists think about behaviour ?

learned

127

what 2 ways do behaviouritst think we learn?

1, classical coniditoniing
2. operant conditioning

128

which is more effective, +ve or -ve reinforcement?

+ve

129

which experiment is used in classical conditioning?

pavlovs dogs

130

in pavlov exp; what was the unconditioned response?

salivation

131

in pavlov exp; what was the neutral stimulus? what did this become?

bell- conditioned stimulus

132

in pavlov exp; what was the unconditioned stimulus?

food

133

what is operant conditioning about?

the consequences of our actions determine whether or not our actions are repeated

134

what is aversion therapy?

negative reinforcement

135

which theory was Bandura's bobo doll study testing?

the social learning theory

136

what does the SLT suggest we learn through?

imitation

137

what is social facilitation?

being in the prescence of others influences our behaviour

138

what did Asch do?

exp on lines

139

who did the electructing exp?

milgram

140

what is deindividuation ?

when social influence overrides our personal values & individual identity

141

what is audience inhibition?

bystander behaviour- fear of embarrassment or doing something wrong

142

what is diffusion of responsibility?

bystander behaviour- assumption that someone else will act

143

what is confusion of responsibilitu?

bystander behaviour- other bystanders may think youve caused the situation

144

what is cost of intervention?

bystander behaviour- not helping due to the costs - court, danger

145

in which century and period of time was human behaviour compared to animals and had a biological perspective?

19th - Industrial revolution

146

what occured in the medievil times?

children seen as adults

147

what period of time were children said to be born evil and they must be raised effectively?

reformation period

148

wht occured in the age of reason?

maturationist beleif - children born with innate morality

149

what occured in the age of enlightenment?

tabula rasa = children born with an inbuilt mechanism - all knowledge comes from experience

150

2 social development theories

psychosexual = freud
psychosocial = erikson

151

what is the psychosocial theory about?

at each stage the child aquires attributes + skills resulting from successful negotiation of psychological conflict

152

what is stage 1 of the psychosocial thoery?

trust vs mistrust

153

PST (psychosocial theory) : what stage occurs at adolescence?

identity vs role confusion

154

PST (psychosocial theory) : what stage occurs at ages 3-6?

initiative vs guilt

155

PST (psychosocial theory) : when do children begin to assert independennce - how old?

stage 2 - autonomy vs shame & doubt

156

what occurs in the industry vs inferiority stage in terms of dependency ?

develop pride in accomplishments

157

PST (psychosocial theory) : stage in middle adulthood

generativity vs stagnation

158

PST (psychosocial theory) : stage in early adulthood

intimacy vs isolation

159

PST (psychosocial theory) : who is in the integrity vs despair stage?

old age

160

what does the biological theory; ethology state when the critical period for learning is?

1st 3 years

161

who developed the cognitive development thoery?

jean piaget

162

in which of piaget's stages can the child think hypothetically?

4. formal operation stage

163

what occurs in the concrete operations stage?

thinking logically

164

piaget = what occurs in the sensori-motor stage?

sensory + motor

165

which of piagets stages is visual?

pre-operational stage

166

which learnign theory takes cultural values into consideration? who?

socio-cultural theory - lev vygotsky

167

3 levels in Kohlburgs development of moral reasoning theory?

1. pre-conventional
2. conventional
3. post-conventional

168

development of moral reasoning theory- Which level bases judgements on consequences?

pre-conventional

169

development of moral reasoning theory- which stage conforms to conventional standards of right and wrong?

conventional

170

development of moral reasoning theory- which stage involves personal views rather than conventional standards?

post-conventional

171

4 stages in John Bowlbys theory of attachment

1. pre-attachement
2. indiscriminate
3. discriminate
4. reciprocal

172

3 attachement types in Ainsworth and Bell

1. secure
2. insure avoidant
3. insecure resistant

173

which attachement type had stemmed from unresponsive care?

insecure avoidant

174

which atrachment type had stemmed from responsive care?

secure

175

what attachmen type stemmed from inconsistent care?

insecure resistant

176

what is classical conditioning?

where a previous neutral stimulus becomes associaited with a particular response

177

who has a higher pain threshold, introverts or extroverts?

extroverts

178

3 responses systems to fear

1. overt behavioural expression
2. covert feelings + thoughts
3. physiological arousal

179

what is an active strategy in terms of coping mechanisms?

being able to control pain

180

what is an passive strategy in terms of coping mechanisms?

helplessness- relying on others

181

2 psychological strategies to control pain?

1. distraction
2. relaxation

182

4 leadership styles

dictatorial
autocratic
democratic
lassiz-faire

183

3 areas of action centred leadership model?

task
team
individual

184

what is the continuum of leadership behaviour model?

relationship between
- freedom giving by mananger
- authority of manager

185

what arose in the era of the market?

providers, purchasers - NHS trusts

186

who was in charge of GP funds in the era of the market?

GPs

187

in what era did patient centred care come about?

era of all change

188

when was the 10 year plan started?

era of all change

189

what year was NICE founded?

1999

190

which health policy was about patient centred care being high quality, for everyone?

high quality care for all

191

what did the health and social care act do?

implement regulating services

192

who commisions CCG?

NHS England

193

who is the CCG led by?what areas do they control?

clinicians - local

194

which model descibes a system where the governnment allocates resources, HC is a basic human right and everyone is entitled to the HC system?

supply side approach

195

apart from the UK, where else has a supply-side mode?

canada

196

who is medicaid for?

poor americans

197

who is medicare for?

elderly + disabled

198

what models does the UK national health insurance mode; use?

both bismark + beveridge

199

what is reffered to as beveridge?

taxation

200

which type of taxation affects poor people

regression

201

which type of taxation affects rich people?

progression

202

what is deficity financing?

borrowing and spending

203

what are earmarked taxes?

taxes on specific things; cigs

204

what type of private insurance is used i the UK by those in higher income groups?

duplicate cover

205

which type of private care included one that uses user charges?

complementary

206

what is supplementary cover?

covers user charges

207

what is alternative/sub cover?

opt out of government - purchase tour own -