You are a psychologist treating a 20 year old college student for Sx's of Depression. The student is covered by her parents' health insurance and has given you permission to speak only with the insurance company. The student's mother calls you to inquire about her child's progress in Tx. What should you do?
A. Provide supportive therapy to the mother and schedule a family therapy session.
B. Deny that you are meeting with the student for therapy and hang up.
C. Confirm that you are seeing the student but refuse to share any information about your sessions.
D. Neither confirm nor deny that you are seeing the student for treatment.
D. Neither confirm nor deny that you are seeing the student for treatment. As long as the student has not given you specific consent to speak with her mother, you should neither confirm nor deny that you are seeing the student for therapy. Even thought the student is covered by her parents' insurance, you do not have legal permission to speak with them.
You receive a subpoena requiring you to testify about a current client at a trial. You contact the client who says he does not want you to testify. You should:
A. Notify the court that you will not be appearing at the trial because the client has not given you permission to do so
B. Appear at the trial as requested but claim the privilege on behalf of the client
C. Explain to the client that you are legally required to provide the requested information
D. Do nothing until you receive an order from the court
B. Appear at the trial as requested but claim the privilege on behalf of the client A subpoena is valid even when a client does not give permission for the release of confidential information. However, in this situation, you should contact the client’s attorney or your own attorney to discuss the matter or contact the attorney who issued the subpoena to request to be released from it. Unless you receive the requested release, you must appear as requested but should claim the privilege on the client’s behalf. (AATBS Facebook Question #61)
If you believe that your adult client is gravely disabled, you:
A. May take the steps necessary to have the client involuntarily hospitalized if his grave disability is due to a mental disorder
B. Must have permission from the client’s family to have the client hospitalized unless the client poses a danger to others
C. Should take the steps necessary to have the client involuntarily hospitalized only if he also presents a danger to others
D. Cannot involuntarily hospitalize the client unless his grave disability is due to chronic alcoholism or substance abuse
A. May take the steps necessary to have the client involuntarily hospitalized if his grave disability is due to a mental disorder When a client’s grave disability is due to a mental disorder or chronic alcoholism or drug use, you may take the steps necessary to have the client involuntarily hospitalized as provided in WIC Sections 5150 and 5230. (AATBS Facebook Question #60)
A psychologist who obtained a Ph.D. in experimental psychology wants to change her specialty to clinical psychology. To meet the requirements set forth by the General Guidelines for Providers, the psychologist must
A. complete an internship in clinical psychology under the supervision of a professional clinical psychologist.
B. complete appropriate doctoral-level classes and supervised post-doctoral training.
C. obtain a Ph.D. in clinical psychology from an accredited college or university.
D. meet her state's requirements for licensure in clinical psychology.
B. complete appropriate doctoral-level classes and supervised post-doctoral training. The licensing exam often contains questions such as these, and in approaching them, you should remember these buzzwords: training AND experience. Specifically, the Specialty Guidelines state that "professional psychologists who wish to qualify as clinical psychologists meet the same requirements with respect to subject matter and professional skills that apply to doctoral and postdoctoral education and training in clinical psychology." Choice "B" is the only one that includes an element of both training and experience, and is therefore the best answer. Moreover, unlike as stated by choice "C", a second Ph.D. would not be necessary -- doctoral level coursework in clinical psychology would be sufficient to meet the academic training aspect of this requirement
Continuing Education Credits (CE Credits) earned through an APA approved sponsor means that the program is:
A. sanctioned by APA
B. endorsed by APA.
C. approved by APA.
D. the responsibility of the sponsor.
D. the responsibility of the sponsor. An organization is approved by the APA to sponsor continuing education programs. The sponsor then becomes responsible for each program. The APA periodically asks for reports from the sponsor, but the specific program is not endorsed, sanctioned, or approved by the APA. Only the overall sponsorship is approved by the APA.
While attending a staff meeting at a mental health facility where you work, you learn that one of your colleagues, a psychologist, is behaving in an unethical manner toward one of her patients. Despite being advised to do so by several members of the staff, she states that she will not change her behavior. What should you do in this situation?
A. Approach the colleague individually and urge her to change her behavior; if she refuses, report her to the appropriate ethics committee.
B. Approach the colleague individually and urge her to change her behavior; if she refuses, recommend to the director of the facility that she be fired.
C. Report the colleague to the appropriate ethics committee immediately, since she has already stated that she will not change her behavior.
D. Announce in the staff meeting that you want to "go on the record" as noting that the psychologist is behaving unethically.
A. Approach the colleague individually and urge her to change her behavior; if she refuses, report her to the appropriate ethics committee. The Ethics Code states that you should deal with ethical violations by another psychologist in an informal manner, by bringing it to the attention of the psychologist. A report to an ethics committee should be made when the attempt at informal resolution has failed or if the violation is not amenable to informal resolution. Thus, you should speak to the psychologist privately and report her to an ethics committee if she still refuses to change her behavior. You may have thought that, since the psychologist has already stated her refusal to behave ethically, you should go ahead and report her, without bothering to talk to her. This actually makes sense, but the Ethics Code requires that you attempt an informal attempt at resolution first. A staff meeting is a formal setting, and does not personally give you the opportunity to attempt an informal resolution.
You have been working with a couple in marital therapy for four months, with slow but notable progress. After a session one day, the wife pulls you aside and asks to make some individual appointments with you. You should
A. refer her to another therapist.
B .wait until the completion of marital therapy and then see her individually.
C. terminate with the couple and see the woman individually.
D. encourage her to discuss any relevant issues within the context of marital therapy.
A. refer her to another therapist. There is a potential for role conflict when a client in conjoint therapy asks you to see him or her individually. It's possible that there may be a conflict between your considerations as a couple's therapist and as an individual therapist. Thus, although your actions would vary depending on the parameters of the individual case, the best answer in light of the information we have is to refer the woman to another therapist for individual therapy.
Fee arrangements should be made with clients
A. at the beginning of treatment.
B. at the end of the first session.
C. on the phone before the first session.
D. as soon as possible.
D. as soon as possible. This is an example of a question with more than one good answer. Choices “A”, “B”, and “C” may all be acceptable, depending on the circumstances. But because there are a number of acceptable answers to this question, you'd hope to find one general answer, such as “D”, that covers most or all of the specific possible options. More importantly, of the choices listed, “D” is most consistent with the language of APA's Ethical Standard 6.04(a), which states: “As early as is feasible in a professional or scientific relationship, psychologists and recipients of psychological services reach an agreement specifying compensation and billing arrangements.
A client suspects that she may have been sexually abused as a child, although she has no conscious recollection of the abuse. She asks her psychologist to use hypnosis to help her retrieve any repressed memories she may have of any abuse. The psychologist should:
A. agree to use hypnosis only if he or she has obtained adequate training and experience in it's use.
B. agree to use hypnosis but take detailed notes in the event of future legal action and avoid asking the client any leading questions.
C. advise against the use hypnosis, but recommend the use of guided imagery, which may be more admissible in court.
D. advise the patient that hypnosis may produce false recollections of abuse and is therefore inappropriate.
D. advise the patient that hypnosis may produce false recollections of abuse and is therefore inappropriate. In a report titled "Final Conclusions of the American Psychological Association Working Group on Investigation of Memories of Childhood Abuse" [Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 2000, 4 (4), 933-940] the authors acknowledge that "it is possible for memories of abuse that have been forgotten for a long time to be remembered." However, they recommend that "clients who seek hypnosis as a means of retrieving or confirming their recollections should be advised that it is not an appropriate procedure for this goal because of the serious risk that pseudomemories may be created in trance states and of the related risk due to increased confidence in those memories. Clients should also be informed that the use of hypnosis could jeopardize any future legal actions they might want to take."
An attorney contacts a psychologist requesting that his client be given a psychological evaluation prior to appearing in court. Following the evaluation the client asks that his records not be released to the court, although his attorney believes that releasing the records would be in his client's best interest. The psychologist should:
A. release the records since there is no privilege regarding forensic evaluations
B. release the records since the attorney requested the evaluation
C. not release the records
D. seek consultation
C. not release the records. Since this does not appear to be a court-ordered evaluation, the examinee remains the holder of the privilege; thus, his records should not be released to the court without his consent.
The purpose of State Licensing Boards is primarily to
A. educate the public.
B. educate the profession.
C. protect the public.
D. set minimum standards of practice.
C. protect the public. The State Boards derive their authority from the principle of protecting the public. That's the justification for giving exams, setting requirements for licensure, writing and enforcing regulations, and so on.
You are working with a couple in marital therapy and are conducting the initial interview. You realize that although the husband doesn't remember you, the two of you once dated. You should
A. speak to the husband alone, explain the situation and ask him if he feels comfortable with proceeding.
B. see the wife in individual therapy only.
C. refer the couple to another therapist.
D. let the couple know the situation and then proceed with therapy.
C. refer the couple to another therapist. This question is fairly easy to answer once you remember you are not obliged to provide services for all your referrals. This is an initial interview and you have a situation that involves a multiple relationship. You need to refer this couple to one of your competent colleagues.
A manufacturing company hires a psychologist to screen job applicants using standardized cognitive ability tests. The company then asks the psychologist to train their human resources staff to administer and score the tests. The psychologist should:
A. agree to do so if the psychologist is able to provide adequate training to the staff
B. agree to do so if the psychologist is able to supervise the human resources staff
C. refuse to do so because cognitive ability tests are not valid predictors of job performance
D. refuse to do so because the human resources staff lacks the appropriate qualifications
D. refuse to do so because the human resources staff lacks the appropriate qualifications Ethical Standard 9.07 states, "Psychologists do not promote the use of psychological assessment techniques by unqualified persons." A human resources staff would be unqualified to use these tests and should not be trained in their use. Contrary to C, cognitive ability tests are considered to be a relatively good predictor of job performance.
Utilization review, an important component of managed health care, refers to the idea that it is useful to
A. review benefits to eliminate or reduce unnecessary health care resources.
B. determine the adequacy of health care standards by comparing them to predetermined standards.
C. make decisions on patient care by a team of medical experts rather than an individual physician.
D. allow a patient to choose from several insurance plans.
A. review benefits to eliminate or reduce unnecessary health care resources. Utilization review is concerned with conserving health care monies. It does this through having a utilization review committee assess the use of benefits and reduce or eliminate inappropriate or unnecessary use of health care resources. Answer B is a description of the concept of quality assurance and answer C is describing a medical team management approach to individual health care.
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 applies to:
A. all health care providers
B. only health care providers who transmit patient information by fax and the internet
C. only health care providers who employ someone, such as billing services, with access to patient information
D. only health care providers who transmit patient information electronically
D. only health care providers who transmit patient information electronically HIPAA does not apply to all health care providers. It only applies to “cover entities” — health plans, health care clearinghouses and healthcare providers — who transmit health information electronically. A provider who only communicates information by mail, phone, or fax is not a covered entity. Transmitting information electronically refers to use of the internet and includes receiving health information as well as transmitting information. For example, a provider is a covered entity even if she/he never transmits information but receives information, such as a description of benefits e-mail, via the internet. Additionally, a provider employing someone who sends or receives patient information on the provider’s behalf via the internet is also a covered entity.
A college psychology instructor gives a battery of psychological tests to some of his students who volunteered to be participants. Based on these tests, he finds that one of the participants is at risk for emotional disturbance. He talks to this student and suggests counseling. At the same time, he informs the director of the college counseling office who is a friend of his. According to APA ethical principles, the professor acted
A. unethically, because he revealed this information to a third party.
B. ethically, because he acted in accord with the student's welfare.
C. ethically, because he had responsibilities to the college as well as to the student.
D. unethically, because he isn't a clinician.
A. unethically, because he revealed this information to a third party. Suggesting counseling to the student is ethical and appropriate. However, barring an emergency situation characterized by imminent danger, informing a third party is unethical.
A psychologist is undertaking a research program in an elementary school on the effect of a new counseling program on enhancing children's self-esteem. The psychologist has received permission from the school's principal, the teachers, and from the parents of each student. However, when she explained the program to the children, some of them objected to being part of the study. The psychologist should
A. not use these children in her study.
B. call the parents of these children and ask them to try to convince the children to participate.
C. use the children in her study because she has all necessary legal consents.
D. re-design the study to eliminate the objection the children have to participating.
A. not use these children in her study. The best idea is to just leave out these children. Participants have the right to decline to participate in research, even if they are children. It wouldn't be practical or prudent to ask her to re-design the whole experiment because a handful of children object to being participants. Thus, the best answer is to just do the study without using the children who object to participating.
You have a client who does not want their records released under any circumstances. The attorney has subpoened you. Your best course of action is to:
A. Respond in-person, but don't take the records
B. Take the records, but don't turn them over
C. Ignore the entire matter
D. Destroy the records
B. Take the records, but don't turn them over You should respond to the subpoena by asserting the psychotherapist-client privilege on the client's behalf. If you cannot be released from the subpoena, you should appear at the legal proceeding with the documents requested, however, you should not actually release any information in the records, unless the judge orders you to do so. Keep in mind that a subpoena duces tecum requires a person to appear at a designated time and place with a copy of the records. It does not necessarily require the person to release those records.
A 16-year-old girl tells her therapist that she wants to kill herself and that she's been thinking of using her mother's prescription pain pills to overdose. The therapist then tells her that he will have to tell her parents about her suicide risk. The girl becomes enraged and says that she would not have disclosed the information if she knew that the therapist would tell her parents. The therapist should:
A. agree not to tell the parents if the girl agrees to a no-harm contract
B. agree not to tell the parents, but tell them without the girl's knowledge
C. tell the parents and refer the girl to another therapist because she will probably not be able to trust the therapist again
D. tell the parents and apologize to the girl for having to do so
D. tell the parents and apologize to the girl for having to do so According to both ethics and law, a psychologist may disclose confidential information without the client's consent to protect the client from harm. This applies to minors and adults alike. In this case, it would most likely be appropriate to inform the girl's parents about her suicide risk. The reasons for this should be explained to the girl and the therapist should apologize for the breach of confidentiality. Given the apparent level of risk involved, it would probably not be sufficient to rely on a no-harm contract (A). It would certainly be inappropriate and countertherapeutic to lie to the client (B). And it may not be necessary to refer the client (C). If handled empathically, it is likely that the girl will come to understand the therapist's reasons for disclosing to the parents and may come to appreciate that her safety was his overriding concern.
Miranda M., age 32, makes an appointment with you at the recommendation of her physician who has diagnosed her recurrent headaches as the result of stress. The woman tells you that a friend of hers was trained in self-hypnosis for tension headaches and says that she also wants training in self-hypnosis. You took a weekend workshop on hypnosis in graduate school but have not used it in your clinical practice. As an ethical psychologist, you should:
a. Admit your lack of expertise in the use of self-hypnosis and refer the woman to another therapist.
b. Advise the woman that the underlying cause of her headaches would probably not be dealt with by self-hypnosis and suggest that she begin individual psychotherapy.
c. Accept the woman for treatment and begin training her in self-hypnosis after reviewing your workshop notes.
d. Accept the woman for treatment and begin training her in self-hypnosis but obtain consultation if you encounter any problems during the course of treatment.
a. admit your lack of expertise in the use of self-hypnosis and refer the woman to another therapist. (Correct Answer) Of the responses given, this one is most consistent with the requirement to provide services that are within the boundaries of your professional competence. Note that, while it is up to you to determine your competence with regard to a particular service or technique, a weekend workshop in self-hypnosis is clearly inadequate. Providing services within the boundaries of one’s competence is addressed by Standard 2.01 of the APA’s Ethic Code and Principle II.6 of the Canadian Code of Ethics. b. advise the woman that the underlying cause of her headaches would probably not be dealt with by self-hypnosis and suggest that she begin individual psychotherapy. - Incorrect It would be unethical to try to convince the client to choose another course of treatment simply because you are not trained in the treatment she desires. c. accept the woman for treatment and begin training her in self-hypnosis after reviewing your workshop notes. - Incorrect Reviewing your workshop notes would not be adequate training. d. accept the woman for treatment and begin training her in self-hypnosis but obtain consultation if you encounter any problems during the course of treatment. Incorrect Although this response comes closer to fulfilling the requirements of the ethical guidelines than do responses b and c it falls short of those requirements because it implies that consultation would not be sought unless you believe that you are having problems during the course of treatment. Consequently, response a is a better answer.
(AATBS Ethics Domain Quiz #18441)
An “informed consent” from a client:
A. Must always be in writing
B. Must always be in writing and in the client’s native language
C. May be either verbal or in writing
D. May be either verbal or in writing but must be documented
D. May be either verbal or in writing but must be documented (Correct) Standard 3.10 of the APA’s Ethics Code stated tht consent must be “appropriately documented,” and Principle I.22 of the Canadian Code of Ethics states that it is acceptable to “accept and document oral consents” when there is a good reason not to obtain a signed written consent. Therefore, this is the best answer of those give. The issue of informed consent is addressed in Standard 3.10 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle I.22 of the Canadian Code of Ethics.
(AATBS Ethics Domain Quiz #18434)
You receive a call from Mrs. Wang who is very upset because her 14-year-old daughter witnessed the assault of her best friend three days ago and is very distraught. The girl hasn’t slept, won’t eat, and can’t stop crying. You have limited experience working with adolescents and in providing crisis intervention services. However, there is no one else in the community who is more experienced than you are. As an ethical psychologist, you will:
a. agree to see Mrs. Wang’s daughter in therapy since you’ve had some experience providing crisis intervention experiences.
b. inform Mrs. Wang about your lack of experience and let her decide if she wants you to provide therapy to her daughter.
c. inform Mrs. Wang that you cannot see her daughter because of your lack of experience.
d. see Mrs. Wang’s daughter in therapy only until the crisis has ended or until you locate alternative services.
d. see Mrs. Wang’s daughter in therapy only until the crisis has ended or until you locate alternative services. CORRECT This answer is most consistent with ethical requirements. Standard 2.02 of the Ethics Code, for example, states that “in emergencies, when psychologists provide services to individuals for whom other mental health services are not available and for which psychologists have not obtained the necessary training, psychologists may provide such services in order to ensure that services are not denied. The services are discontinued as soon as the emergency has ended or appropriate services are available.” Standard 2.02 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle II.8 of the Canadian Code of Ethics apply to this situation.
(AATBS Ethics Domain Quiz #18476)
If a psychologist acts as both a fact witness for the plaintiff and an expert witness for the court in a criminal trial, she has acted:
a. unethically by accepting dual roles.
b. ethically as long as she did not have a prior relationship with the plaintiff.
c. ethically as long as she clarifies her roles with all parties.
d. ethically as long as she obtains a waiver from the court.
c. ethically as long as she clarifies her roles with all parties. (Correct Answer) According to ethical guidelines, accepting multiple roles may be acceptable as long as certain conditions are met – e.g., as long as the psychologist clarifies the nature of the multiples relationships with all involved parties (see Standard 3.05 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle I.26 of the Canadian Code of Ethics). In addition, the Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists states that acting as a consultant for one party and a fact witness for another may be acceptable as long as the psychologist clarifies his/her roles with both parties and acts in a way that does not compromise his/her judgment and objectivity. The adoption of multiple roles is addressed in the ethics codes published by the American and Canadian Psychological Associations and in the APA’s Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists. (AATBS Ethics Domain Quiz #18560)
The mother of a 31-year-old client that you have been seeing for six months calls to check on her son's progress. She says that she is very concerned about her son and wants to know if there is anything she can do to help him. As an ethical psychologist, you:
a. advise her in general terms about how she can help her son.
b. suggest that she make an appointment so you can discuss the matter in person.
c. suggest that she come to therapy with her son at his next appointment.
d. tell her that you cannot discuss her son’s condition with her.
d. tell her that you cannot discuss her son’s condition with her. (CORRECT) Giving the mother any information about her adult son would represent a breach of his confidentiality. Therefore, this is the best answer of those given. This question addresses the issue of client confidentiality.
(AATBS Ethics Domain Quiz #18510)
A. Is explicitly prohibited by ethical guidelines
B. Is not explicitly prohibited by ethical guidelines but is implicitly prohibited by standards limiting “multiple relationships.”
C. Is not explicitly prohibited by ethical guidelines but is implicitly prohibited by standards limiting “sexual intimacies.”
D. Is not Explicitly prohibited by ethical guidelines but is implicitly prohibited by standards requiring “avoidance of harm.”
A. Is explicitly prohibited by ethical guidelines (Correct) Standard 3.02 of the Ethics Code states that “psychologists do not engage in sexual harassment”; Principle I.4 of the Canadian Code of Ethics states that psychologists “abstain from harassment, including sexual harassment.” Sexual Harassment is explicitly addressed by Standard 3.02 of the APA’s Ethics Code and Principle I.4 of the Canadian Code of Ethics.
(AATBS Ethics Domain Quiz #18555)
Kameko K., a psychology intern, administers psychological tests to the clients of a community mental health clinic, but her supervisor always scores the tests and interprets their results. When preparing the psychological report for these clients, the supervisor does not indicted that the intern administered the tests. This is:
A. Ethical because the supervisor scored and interpreted the tests.
B. Ethical because the supervisor is responsible for the accuracy of the psychological report.
C. Unethical because an intern should not be administering psychological tests.
D. Unethical because the intern should be listed as the examiner in the report.
D. Unethical because the intern should be listed as the examiner in the report. (Correct) This response is most consistent with ethical guidelines. For example, Standard 5.01(b) of the APA’s Ethics Code prohibits psychologists from making misleading statements and Standard 6.06 requires psychologists to provide accurate information to payors and funding sources. It is also consistent with Principles III.1 and 5 of the Canadian Code of Ethics. This issue is not directly addressed by ethical guidelines, so the best approach when choosing the answer would have been to identify the one that is most consistent with the “spirit” of the guidelines.
(AATBS Ethics Domain Quiz #18470)
Of the following, which is responsible for the largest population of complaints filed with the APA's Ethics Committee?
A. Sexual Misconduct
B. Test Misuse
C. Breach of Confidentiality
A. Sexual Misconduct (Correct) The 2009 Report of the Ethics Committee, for example, identifies sexual misconduct of an adult as being the behavior most commonly cited in cases opened by the Ethics Committee, which is consistent with previous reports. Test misuse, breach of confidentiality, and discrimination (answer b, c, and d) are causes of complaints but not as often as is sexual misconduct. Although the types of actions that underlie complaints filed with the APA's Ethics Committee vary in number from year to year, one of the actions listed in the answers to this question has consistently been the most frequent cause of complaints.
(AATBS Ethics Domain Quiz #18523)
When evaluating a defendant’s competence to stand trial, the focus of the evaluation is on the defendant’s:
A. ability to distinguish right from wrong.
B. ability to comprehend the charges against him/her.
C. mental state at the time he/she committed the crime.
D. DSM-IV diagnosis.
B. ability to comprehend the charges against him/her - (CORRECT) An evaluation for competence to stand trial focuses on the defendant’s ability to comprehend the charges against him/her, to understand the trial process, to cooperate with his/her attorney, etc. The focus of an evaluation to determine a defendant’s competence to stand trial focuses on his/her current psycholegal abilities and impairments.
(AATBS Ethics Domain Quiz #18565)
You receive a letter from Mrs. Bisque's attorney asking you to testify that Mrs. Bisque, is in the process of the divorce settlement, should have sole custody of her children. You are aware that Mr. Bisque was recently admitted to the psychiatric hospital in another city. You should:
A. Make a recommendation based on your knowledge that Mr. Bisque is obviously unable to have custody of the children.
.B. Make a recommendation based on an interview with Mrs. Bisque and her children.
C. Refused to make a recommendation since psychologists are not supposed make specific custody recommendations.
D. Refused to make a specific recommendation about custody unless you can evaluate the entire family.
D. Refused to make a specific recommendation about custody unless you can evaluate the entire family (Correct) An accepted standard of practice in custody situations is that a psychologist should not make a recommendation for custody unless the psychologists have evaluated all parties. This is consistent with the requirements of standard 9.01 of the APA's Ethics Code and Principles II.3 of the Canadian Code of Ethics and with the provisions of the APA's guidelines for Child Custody Evaluation and Divorce Proceeding. Although it is not unethical to provide information (e.g., test results) about a single party in a custody dispute, it would be unethical to make a recommendation about custody based on incomplete information.
(AATBS Ethics Domain Quiz #18465)
A client that Dr. William Wong has been seeing in therapy for six months is currently the defendant in a court case. The client's attorney contacts Dr. Wong, requesting that he provide her with information about the client's diagnosis and treatment progress since this information will be helpful in preparing the client's defense. Dr. Wong should:
A. Release that information as requested since privilege is waived in the situation
B. Release only the information he believes is relevant to the client's case
C. Release the information since the request came from the client's attorney
D. Discussed the release with the client before taking any additional action
D. Discussed the release with the client before taking any additional action (Correct) Privilege may or may not be waived in the situation and, even if it is, Dr. Wong should discuss the release of confidential information with the client before doing so (and, in most cases, obtain a waiver from the client). The release of confidential client information ordinarily requires a waiver of confidentiality from the client.
(AATBS Ethics Domain Quiz #18471)