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To be consistent with ethical requirements, David DeFoe, a psychology intern, must do which of the following when a supervisor has legal responsibility for his work?
A. He must tell his clients that he is a psychology intern.
B. He must tell his clients that his work is being supervised
C. He must provide clients with information about his education and experience
D. He must indicate his status on his business card

Standard 10.10 of the APA's Ethics Code & Principle III.22 of the Canadian Code of Ethics apply to the situation described in the question.
A. He must tell his clients that he is a psychology intern - CORRECT: This answer is most consistent w/ethical guidelines which require interns (Trainees) to inform their clients of tier professional statuses. Note that Standard 10.10(c) of the Ethics Code also requires that Mr. DeFoe provide clients with the name of his supervisor.
B. He must tell his clients that his work is being supervised - Incorrect: Telling clients that he is being supervised would not be adequate since this would not clearly indicate that he is an intern.
(Ethics Question)


You have been seeing Leticia Lopez in therapy for several months. Leticia is 24 years old and lives with her widowed mother, who is paying for Leticia's therapy. One day, Leticia's mother calls and says she is very concerned
about Leticia and wants to know what she can do to help Leticia feel better about herself. Mrs. Lopez asks that you not tell Leticia that she has called. Your best course of action in this situation would be to:
A. give Mrs. Lopez the specific advice she has requested.
B. tell Mrs. Lopez to ask Leticia what she (Mrs. Lopez) can do to help her.
C. tell Mrs. Lopez that it would be best if you discussed this matter with Leticia
D. suggest that Mrs. Lopez accompany Leticia to her next therapy session.

Leticia is an adult and, even though her mother is paying for her therapy, this does not limit Leticia's confidentiality.
C. tell Mrs. Lopez that it would be best if you discussed this matter with Leticia - CORRECT This course of action is most consistent with the ethical guidelines and is also likely to be in the best interests of Leticia from a clinical perspective.
a. Incorrect Discussing Leticia’s status with her mother without Leticia’s consent would represent a breach of confidentiality.
b. Incorrect This alternative does not explicitly violate ethical guidelines, but response c is a better answer.
d. Incorrect This would not be the most appropriate course of action from either an ethical or clinical perspective.
(Ethics Question)


Dr. Calvin Claymore, a licensed psychologist, regularly waives the co-payment for low-income clients whose therapy fees are covered by insurance. This practice is:
A. ethical only if the insurance company has agreed to this arrangement
B. ethical since it is in the best interests of low-income clients.
C. ethical as long as Dr. Claymore doesn't bill the insurance company for an increased hourly fee in order to collect her full fee.
D. ethical as long as the insurance company does not explicitly prohibit this arrangement.

The practice described in this question represents insurance fraud, which is both unethical and illegal.
A. ethical only if the insurance company has agreed to this arrangement - CORRECT Most insurance companies agree to pay a specific percentage of a psychologist’s Fee but, when the co-payment is waived, this means the insurance company is paying the entire Fee. Consequently, regularly waiving the co-payment without the permission of the insurance company represents insurance fraud.
(Ethics Question)


Which of the following is responsible for the largest proportion of complaints filed with the APA’s Ethics Committee?
A. sexual misconduct
B. test misuse
C. breach of confidentiality
D. discrimination

Although the types of actions that underlie complaints filed with the APA's Ethics Committee vary in number from year to year, one of the actions listed in the answers to this question has consistently been the most frequent cause of complaints.
a. Sexual Misconduct - CORRECT The 2005 Report of the Ethics Committee, For example, identifies sexual misconduct of an adult as being the behavior most commonly cited in cases opened by the Ethics Committee, which is consistent with previous
reports. Test misuse, breach of confidentiality, and discrimination (answers b, c, and d) are causes of complaints but not as often as is sexual misconduct.
(Ethics Question)


Within the context of sexual harassment, “quid pro quo" refers to:
A. a situation in which an employee's response to sexual demands impacts his/her job.
B. the creation of a "hostile environment" as a result of sexually offensive conduct.
C. the judgment of a "reasonable woman" that an act is offensive.
C. overt (explicit) sexual conduct.

“Quid pro quo" is one of two legally recognized types of sexual harassment.
A. a situation in which an employee's response to sexual demands impacts his/her job - CORRECT Quid pro quo sexual harassment occurs when a person's submission to or rejection of sexual advances affects his/her employment status (Hostile environment sexual harassment is the other legally recognized type of
sexual harassment.)
(Ethics Question)


Administering a drug that reduces dopamine to below normal levels would have which effect on the symptoms of schizophrenia?
A. exacerbate symptoms
B. decrease or eliminate symptoms
C. have no effect on symptoms
D. affect negative symptoms only

According to the dopamine hypothesis, schizophrenia is due to excessive dopamine or oversensitivity to dopamine. Consequently, drugs that reduce dopamine levels will decrease the symptoms of this disorder.
B. decrease or eliminate symptoms - CORRECT The traditional antipsychotic drugs exert their beneficial effects primarily by reducing dopamine to below-normal levels.
d. Incorrect The traditional antipsychotics actually seem to have more effect on the positive symptoms than on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
(Abnormal Psychology Question - DSM -IV)


In terms of neurotransmitters, bulimia nervosa has been linked to:
A. lower-than-normal levels of serotonin and norepinephrine.
B. a lower-than normal level of serotonin and a higher-than-normal level of norepinephrine.
C. a lower-than-normal level of norepinephrine and a higher-than normal level of serotonin.
D. higher-than-normal levels of serotonin and norepinephrine.

Bulimia has been attributed to abnormalities in serotonin,
norepinephrine, and dopamine.
A. lower-than-normal levels of serotonin and norepinephrine - CORRECT Bulimia has been linked to low levels of both serotonin and norepinephrine; and several recent studies have confirmed that serotonin and
norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (e.g., duloxetine) are useful For eliminating the binging and purging behaviors associated with this disorder.
(Abnormal Psychology Question - DSM -IV)


The assessment of patients with Alzheimer's dementia is an ongoing process due to the degenerative nature of the disease and the consequent need to alter the nature of the treatment plan. During the 4th or 5th year of the
disorder, an assessment is most likely to reveal:
A. deficits in new learning, mild to moderate impairment in remote memory, anomia, and sadness.
B. severe impairments in recent and remote memory, fluent aphasia, indifference or irritability, and restlessness.
C. severe impairments in memory and executive functioning, motor rigidity, confusion, and delusions.
D. severely impaired intellectual functioning, limb rigidity, apathy, and seizures.

Alzheimer's dementia is a degenerative disease with symptoms becoming progressively worse over time.
a. Incorrect These symptoms are more common during the first 2 to 3 years of the disorder.
B. severe impairments in recent and remote memory, fluent aphasia, indifference or irritability, and restlessness - CORRECT These are characteristic symptoms during the 3rd through 10th years.
c. Incorrect These are late-stage symptoms (8 to 12 years).
d. Incorrect Severely impaired intellectual Functioning, limb rigidity, and apathy are also later symptoms; and seizures are not necessarily associated with this disorder.
(Abnormal Psychology Question - DSM -IV)


According to the catecholarnine hypothesis:
A. mania is due to a deficiency in norepinephrine.
B. depression is due to a deficiency in norepinephrine
C. mania is due to excessive acetylcholine.
D. depression is due to excessive acetylcholine.

Knowing that the catecholamines include epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine would have helped you identify the correct response to this question.
a. Incorrect The catecholamine hypothesis (Schildkraut, 1965, 1978) predicts that mania is due to excessive norepinephrine.
B. depression is due to a deficiency in norepinephrine - CORRECT According to the catecholamine hypothesis, at least some types of depression are due to a lower-than-normal level of norepinephrine.
(Abnormal Psychology Question - DSM -IV)


If one of the offspring in a family develops schizophrenia, what is the likelihood that his/her biological sibling will also develop this disorder?
A. 2 %
B. 10 %
C. 25%
D. 45 %

Although the concordance rates for schizophrenia vary somewhat from study to study, only one of the correlations given in the answers comes close to the rates reported in the literature for biological siblings.
B. 10 % - CORRECT This is the typical correlation reported in the literature for biological siblings.
(Abnormal Psychology Question - DSM -IV)


Research investigating comorbidity in children suggests that, when depression occurs in conjunction with _______, the depression is often associated with a different course and a different family background than
when it occurs alone.
A. an anxiety disorder
B. conduct disorder
C. somatic complaints
D. learning problems

This is a difficult question that requires you to be an expert on childhood depression. For these kinds of questions, if you don't know the answer, don't spend too much time trying to figure them out: Make an “educated guess" and move on to the next question.
a. Incorrect Anxiety commonly occurs in conjunction with depressive symptoms in children. The research suggests that when anxiety and depression occur together, the depression is similar in terms of course and family background to depression that occurs without anxiety.
B. conduct disorder - CORRECT Some experts suggest that depression occurring in conjunction with conduct disorder is actually a different type of depression since it is associated with a lower rate of depression in adulthood as well as with a lower rate of depression among relatives. See R. Harrington, Affective disorders, in M. Rutter, et al., (eds.), Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1994.
c. Incorrect There is currently no research suggesting that somatic complaints are indicative of a different form of depression.
d. Incorrect There is currently no evidence that suggests that learning problems are indicative of a different form of depression.
(Abnormal Psychology Question - DSM -IV)


The research suggests that the most effective treatment for nicotine dependence in terms of both short- and long-term effects combines:
A. a 12-step program with individual therapy.
B. a 12-step program with relapse prevention.
C. nicotine replacement therapy with aversion therapy.
D. nicotine replacement therapy with behavioral interventions.

Based on a review of the empirical research, the American Psychiatric Association (1996) concluded that a multimodal intervention is the most successful approach for treating nicotine dependence.
D. nicotine replacement therapy with behavioral interventions - CORRECT The APA Found that the most successful programs include nicotine replacement therapy, multicomponent behavior therapy, and support and assistance from a clinician.
(Abnormal Psychology Question - DSM -IV)


Dissociative amnesia most commonly involves:
A. short-term memory loss.
B. retrospective gaps in memory.
C. widespread retrograde amnesia.
D. a period of unconsciousness.

Dissociative amnesia is characterized by an inability to recall important personal information that is often related to a traumatic event.
a. Incorrect Short-term memory is usually not affected in dissociative amnesia.
B. retrospective gaps in memory - CORRECT Dissociative amnesia involves retrospective gaps in the recall of aspects of the individual's past, often aspects related to a trauma or stressor - i.e., the individual cannot recall events related to or following exposure to a traumatic or stressful event.
c. Incorrect Memory loss is most often related to a traumatic event and does not usually entail widespread retrograde amnesia — i.e., it does not include memory
loss for events that occurred prior to the event.
d. Incorrect A period of unconsciousness is not characteristic of this disorder.
(Abnormal Psychology Question - DSM -IV)


Apraxia, a symptom of dementia, involves which of the following?
A. deficits in written and/or spoken language
B. inability to execute voluntary motor movements
C. incoordination, clumsiness, and a lack of balance
D. inability to recognize familiar objects or people

The diagnosis of dementia requires some degree of memory impairment and aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, and/or impaired executive functioning.
a. Incorrect Aphasia refers to deficits in written and/or spoken language.
B. inability to execute voluntary motor movements - CORRECT A person with apraxia has difficulty executing voluntary motor movements that is NOT due to problems in muscle strength or a lack of cooperation.
c. Incorrect Ataxia is characterized by incoordination, clumsiness, and a lack of balance.
d. Incorrect Agnosia is the inability to recognize or identify familiar objects, people, or sounds.
(Abnormal Psychology Question - DSM -IV)


Unilateral electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT) to the right hemisphere would most likely produce:
A. predominantly anterograde amnesia involving nonverbal material.
B. predominantly anterograde amnesia involving verbal material.
C. predominantly retrograde amnesia involving nonverbal material.
D. predominantly retrograde amnesia involving verbal material.

Knowing that, in most people, the left hemisphere mediates verbal memories while the right hemisphere mediates nonverbal memories would have helped narrow the responses to a and c.
A. predominantly anterograde amnesia involving nonverbal material - CORRECT ECT can produce both anterograde and retrograde amnesia but anterograde amnesia predominates. Consequently, following unilateral ECT to the right hemisphere, a person will have the most trouble forming new nonverbal memories. See, e.g., E. Kolb and I. Q. Wishaw, Fundamentals of Human
Neuropsycnology, New York, W. H. Freeman and Co., 1995.
(Abnormal Psychology Question - DSM -IV)


Compared to children and adolescents in the general population, children and adolescents with a learning disorder have:
A. a lower rate of psychopathology.
B. a higher rate of psychopathology.
C. the same rate of psychopathology.
D. the same rate of psychopathology but more severe symptoms.

Although the specific diagnoses that commonly co—occur with the learning disorders are relatively limited in number, the rates of these diagnoses are higher than the rates in the general population.
B. a higher rate of psychopathology - CORRECT As an example, the prevalence rate for ADHD is 3 to 5% in the general population but between 20 and 25% for children with a learning disorder.
(Abnormal Psychology Question - DSM -IV)


Orgasmic reconditioning is considered to be an effective treatment for which of the following disorders?
A. male erectile disorder
B. male and female orgasmic disorder
C. paraphilia
D. gender identity disorder

Orgasmic reconditioning is based on the assumption that orgasm reinforces sexual fantasies, and it is used to replace the stimuli that produce an organism.
C. paraphilia - CORRECT Orgasmic reconditioning is one of the techniques used to treat paraphilias and involves having the individual replace an unacceptable sexual
fantasy with a more acceptable one while masturbating.
(Abnormal Psychology Question - DSM -IV)


In therapy, an American Indian family is likely to respond most positively to interventions that:
A. reflect a “value—free” perspective.
B. reflect a spiritual, holistic’ orientation to life.
C. make a clear distinction between mental and physical well-being.
D. take into account the hierarchical structure of the family.

It is always important to take a therapy client’s culture into account when deriving a diagnosis and developing a treatment plan.
a. Incorrect When working with American Indian clients, adopting a “value-free" perspective can lead to mistrust.
B. reflect a spiritual, holistic’ orientation to life - CORRECT American Indians are likely to have a spiritual, holistic orientation to life that emphasizes harmony with nature.
c. Incorrect As a general rule, American Indians do not make clear distinctions between mental and physical health.
d. Incorrect The structure of American Indian families varies; however, families are usually not hierarchical.
(Clinical Psychology Question)


Teddy Roosevelt was weak and ill as a child but grew up to be a robust adult and coined the term “rugged individualism." He also became associated with
the slogan “speak softly but carry a big stick.” This outcome is predicted by ______theory of personality.
A. Adler’s
B. Rogers’s
C. Perls’s
D. Jung’s

This is a fairly simple question as long as you recall that Adler is associated with the concepts of "feelings of inferiority" and "striving for superiority."
A. Adler’s - CORRECT According to Adler, real or imagined organ inferiority leads to feelings of inferiority. However, people can respond to these feelings in a
constructive way and pursue goals that help them achieve superiority.
(Clinical Psychology Question)


The belief that a child‘s misbehavior has one of four goals - i.e. attention, revenge, power, or to display inadequacy -is most consistent with:
A. Beck’s cognitive-behavioral therapy.
B. Adler’s individual psychology.
C. Perls’s Gestalt therapy.
D. Mahler’s object relations theory.

Adler believed that all behaviors are goal—directed and purposeful.
B. Adler’s individual psychology - CORRECT Dreikurs, an associate of Adler's, described the misbehavior of
children as attempts to belong, which reflect faulty beliefs about what it takes to belong (e.g., “I belong only when I'm the center of attention").
(Clinical Psychology Question)


Carl Jung believed that a client's transference:
A. is a fantasy that distracts the client from reality.
B. represents “mixed feelings” toward the therapist.
C. is a form of "acting out."
D. reflects the client’s personal and collective unconscious

The correct answer to this question should have been easy to identify if you’re at all familiar with Jung's work, since only one of the answers includes language that is associated with his analytical psychology.
D. reflects the client’s personal and collective unconscious - CORRECT Jung viewed transference as the projection of both the personal and collective unconscious.
(Clinical Psychology Question)


A formative evaluation is conducted:
A. prior to developing an intervention to determine what the intervention should include.
B. during the delivery of the intervention to identify ways to improve it.
C. at the end of the intervention to evaluate its effectiveness.
D. at the end of the intervention to evaluate participants’ reactions to it.

In the evaluation literature, a distinction is made between formative and summative evaluation.
a. Incorrect This sounds more like a needs analysis.
B. during the delivery of the intervention to identify ways to improve it - CORRECT As its name suggests, a formative evaluation is conducted while an
intervention is being “formed” [developed or delivered] and is used to determine if the intervention needs to be modified in order to meet its goals.
c. Incorrect This describes a summative evaluation.
d. Incorrect This also sounds more like a summative evaluation.
(Clinical Psychology Question)


A practitioner of which of the following is most likely to agree that the therapist's role is to bring unconscious issues that exist within a family to a conscious level?
A. systemic family therapy
B. existential family therapy
C. structural family therapy
D. object relations family therapy

Practitioners of psychodynamic psychotherapy are interested in the impact of unconscious issues on current behavior; and only one of the therapies listed in the answers is a psychodynamic approach.
D. object relations family therapy - CORRECT Object relations family therapy is psychoclynamic and links
intrapsychic phenomena to current family relationships.
(Clinical Psychology Question)


From the perspective of Gestalt therapy, introjection is:
A. the result of an unresolved conflict.
B. an image disturbance.
C. a boundary disturbance.
D. a defense mechanism.

Gestaltians use the term introjection to describe an overly permeable boundary between the person and the environment.
C. a boundary disturbance - CORRECT For Gestaltians, neurotic behavior is often the result of a disturbance
in the boundary between the person and his/her external environment. Introjection is one type of boundary disturbance and occurs when a person accepts values, beliefs, etc. from the environment without actually understanding or fully assimilating them.
(Clinical Psychology Question)


A family therapist working from the perspective of social learning theory is likely to describe spouse abuse as:
A. a homeostatic mechanism that serves to restore the abuser's control over the relationship.
B. the result of repetitious and dysfunctional transactional patterns.
C. an acquired response that has been maintained by its ability to reduce stress.
D. isolation of the marital dyad from outside social (corrective) influences.

Social learning theory emphasizes the impact of parents and others on behavior as well as the internal, vicarious, and/or external consequences of a behavior.
C. an acquired response that has been maintained by its ability to reduce stress - CORRECT This answer is the only one that addresses the impact of learning and consequences on behavior and, therefore, is the best response.
(Clinical Psychology Question)


From the perspective of Jay i-ia|ey’s strategic family therapy, “symptoms” are primarily _______phenomena.
A. affective
B. intrapsychic
C. interpersonal
D. cognitive

Haley’s strategic family therapy was influenced by the
communication/interaction school of family therapy and emphasizes the role of interaction in family functioning.
C. interpersonal - CORRECT For strategic family therapists, a symptom is an interpersonal phenomenon that represents an attempt to control a relationship.
(Clinical Psychology Question)


A wife approaches her husband in an affectionate way. He pulls away from her; but when she begins to leave the room, he says in a hurt manner, "What's wrong? Don't you want to spend time with me?“ When she protests, he ignores her. This is an example of:
A. mystification.
B. a negative feedback loop. ‘
C. dysfunctional communication.
D. double-bind communication.

In this situation, the husband has given inconsistent (“double”) messages to his wife.
a. Incorrect Mystification is similar to a double—bind communication, but its purpose is to mask an underlying conflict.
b. Incorrect A negative feedback loop is a corrective mechanism that allows a family system to reduce deviation and maintain stability.
c. Incorrect Although this communication is dysfunctional, this answer is too general, and answer d is a better response.
D. double-bind communication - CORRECT When a person is given inconsistent messages and is unable to comment on them, this is referred to as a “double-bind."
(Clinical Psychology Question)


The Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model proposed by Atkinson, Morten and Sue (1993) is based on the assumption that the stages of identity development reflect changes in:
A. attitudes toward members of minority and dominant cultures.
B. interactions with members of minority and dominant cultures.
C. level of acculturation.
D. stage of ego identity development.

Each stage of the Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model is characterized by a different set of attitudes toward members of one's own minority group, members of other minority groups, and members of the dominant group.
A. attitudes toward members of minority and dominant cultures - CORRECT Each stage in this model reflects different attitudes toward members of different racial/cultural groups.
(Clinical Psychology Question)


Troiden’s (1988) Gay/Lesbian (Homosexual) Identity Development Model predicts that individuals in the sensitization stage:
A. realize that they are homosexual.
B. begin to “come out" to friends in the homosexual community.
C. feel different or alienated from their same—sex peers.
D. believe they are homosexual but try to “pass” as heterosexual.

Troiden’s (1988) Gay/Lesbian (Homosexual) Identity Development Model distinguishes between four age-related stages: sensitization, self-recognition, identity assumption, and commitment.
a. Incorrect This is characteristic of the self—recognition stage which occurs at the onset of puberty.
b. Incorrect This is characteristic of the identity assumption stage.
C. feel different or alienated from their same—sex peers - CORRECT The sensitization stage usually occurs in middle childhood. During this stage, the individual feels different from and experiences less opposite—sex
interests than his/her peers and begins to have homosexual feelings without understanding the implications of those feelings for self—identity.
c. Incorrect This is not characteristic of the sensitization stage.
(Clinical Psychology Question)


The Health Belief Model predicts that, to modify an individual’s health—related behaviors, an intervention should focus on:
A. the rewards and punishments associated with health—related behaviors.
B. the severity, duration, and stage of the illness.
C. the individual’s locus of control.
D. the individual’s knowledge, motivation, and self—efficacy beliefs.

As its name implies, the Health Belief Model focuses on the impact of an individual’s beliefs on his/her health—related behaviors.
a. Incorrect The Health Belief Model emphasizes the individual's perceptions and beliefs rather than on external conditions [e.g., rewards and punishments] that
influence health—related behaviors.
b. Incorrect This is not a focus of interventions based on the Health Belief Model, which usually emphasize prevention of a disorder rather than the treatment of an
existing disorder.
c. Incorrect The Health Locus of Control Model emphasizes the role of locus of control beliefs.
D. the individual’s knowledge, motivation, and self—efficacy beliefs - CORRECT According to the Health Belief Model, a person's willingness to take appropriate health—related actions is related to the person's beliefs about (1)
his/her susceptibility to the illness; (2) the consequences of the illness; and (3) the benefits of and barriers to taking appropriate action. Interventions based on the Health Belief Model focus on the individual's knowledge about the illness and methods for avoiding it; motivation to take action; and self—efficacy beliefs.
(Clinical Psychology Question)