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1. A high LPC leader
a. Treats his least favorite worker well
b. Treats his least favorite worker poorly
c. Treats his favorite worker like his least favorite worker
d. Has an ambivalent style toward his workers.

a. Treats his least favorite worker well -- Fiedler's Contingency Theory proposed that in terms of a leader's style and the favorableness of a situation, the latter was determined by the degree to which the leader could control and influence their subordinate. Fiedler described a leader's style by his or her scores on his Least Preferred Coworker Scale. A high LPC leader describes their least preferred coworker in positive terms and these leaders are primarily relationship oriented. Note that the question talks about how a leader "treats" their worker rather than how they "describe" the worker.. While these are not exactly the same concepts, the EPPP will take these type of liberties so this is an example of choosing an answer that is in the "ballpark".


2. From Wolpe's classical conditioning perspective, neurotic depression:
a. is a conditioned response that can be alleviated through extinction trials in which the neutral (conditioned) stimulus is repeatedly presented without the depression-inducing (unconditioned) stimulus.
b. is a response to anxiety and can, therefore, be alleviated by using systematic desensitization to eliminate the anxiety.
c. is due to attributional biases that, through conditioning, have become associated with certain types of events and can be eliminated through reattribution training.
d. results when there is an absence of response contingent reinforcement and is best treated by counterconditioning in which depression is paired with a variety of pleasure-producing (unconditioned) stimuli.

b. is a response to anxiety and can, therefore, be alleviated by using systematic desensitization to eliminate the anxiety -- Even if you are unfamiliar with Wolpe's explanation of depression, you may have been able to pick the right answer to this question as long as you have him associated with systematic desensitization. Wolpe distinguished between several types of depression. He linked neurotic depression to anxiety and considered systematic desensitization to be an effective treatment.


3. You receive a letter from the current therapist of a former client. The therapist wants you to forward a copy of the client's records, and she encloses a signed release from the client. The client still owes you for ten therapy sessions, and you notify the client that you will not release the records until a satisfactory payment arrangement has been made. According to the Ethics Code, this
a. is clearly unethical.
b. may be acceptable if the client's records are not "imminently needed."
c. may be acceptable if you had informed the client of your policy when he began treatment.
d. may be acceptable if you previously attempted to collect the fees and the client was uncooperative.

b. may be acceptable if the client's records are not "imminently needed." -- This issue is covered by Standard 6.03 of the Ethics Code, which states that “Psychologists may not withhold records under their control that are requested and needed for a client's/patient's emergency treatment solely because payment has not been received."


4. To reduce their liability risk, managed care organizations are most likely to do which of the following?
a. insure their providers are credentialed
b. reduce the amount of time between date of claim submission and approval of claim
c. utilization review
d. pay their providers a reasonable reimbursement rate

a. insure their providers are credentialed -- Managed care organizations typically require all their providers to be credentialed. This helps to insure that their providers are competent and, consequently, reduces their risk of liability. Utilization Review (C) is a cost containment procedure involving an evaluation of patients' use of services to identify any unnecessary or inappropriate use of health care resources.


5. A professional working in the field of psychophysics would be most interested in:
a. the all-or-none principle.
b. just noticeable differences.
c. functional brain imaging.
d. long-term potentiation.

b. just noticeable differences. -- Psychophysics is the study of the relationship between the magnitude of a physical stimulus and the internal sensation associated with that magnitude. One method for studying this relationship is to determine just noticeable differences, or the amount of change in physical stimulus magnitude that is needed to notice the change.


6. According to Ellen Berscheid's Emotion-in-Relationships Model partners in long-term relationships are most likely to:
a. underestimate their emotional investment in the relationship when things are running smoothly
b. overestimate their emotional investment in the relationship when things are running smoothly
c. experience the most intense positive emotions after several years into the relationship
d. focus on attributions which are external to their partners and themselves to understand their relationship

a. underestimate their emotional investment in the relationship when things are running smoothly -- Ellen Berscheid's Emotion-in-Relationships Model proposes that positive and negative emotions are most likely to occur in a relationship when the partner's behavior interrupts the individual's typical on-going behaviors. Thus, when things are running smoothly, there are fewer interruptions and less intense emotions. Although the partners are highly interdependent during this period, they are also more likely to underestimate their emotional investment. Choice C reflects the opposite of Berscheid's model because there are more surprises or interruptions to the status quo in the early stage of a relationship -- which results in the most positive (and negative) emotions. Choice D is incorrect because Berscheid suggests that partners (and researchers) tend to underestimate the importance of external situational factors in a relationship (E. Berscheid, Interpersonal relationships. In L. W. Porter & M. R. Rosenzweig (Eds.), Annual review of psychology, 1994, (pp. 79-129). Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews).


7. You are commuting to work early in the morning at 15 mph over the speed limit. You glance in your rearview mirror and notice blue flashing lights. You slow down and pull over. According to French and Raven's ideas about social power, which type of power are you attributing to the policemen?
a. legitimate
b. reward
c. informational
d. referent

a. legitimate -- According to French and Raven (1959), in the case of legitimate authority, the target believes the influencing agent has legitimate authority. With reward power (response B), the influencing agent has control over valued rewards and resources. And, what you are about to receive from the policeman will not be a reward. With informational power (response C), the influencing agent possesses specific information needed by the target person, and with referent power (response D), the target identifies with or likes the influencing agent.


8. Recently the relationship between Frank and one of his adult sons has become increasingly tense, conflicted and distant. Frank considers himself a loving and supportive father. He dismisses the problem as a temporary "phase" to avoid the situation. Frank’s attempt to explain away the problem, according to Whitbourne's self-concept model, is an attempt to maintain his own self-concept through:
a. identity assimilation
b. identity accommodation
c. identity styles
d. rationalization

a. identity assimilation -- Identity process theory proposes that adjustment to aging can be conceptualized as involving the three processes of identity assimilation (maintaining self-consistency), identity accommodation (making changes in the self), and identity balance (maintaining a sense of self but changing when necessary). Despite the changes in the relationship with his son, Frank continues to think of himself as having a loving relationship in order to maintain his consistent sense of self. Research indicates only identity balance is positively related to internal state awareness, suggesting that the ability to incorporate age-related changes within an identity and at the same time maintain a consistent and positive view of the self is most conducive to successful aging. (See: Sneed, J.R. & Whitbourne, S.K. (2003). Identity Processing and Self-Consciousness in Middle and Later Adulthood. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 58, 313-319.)


9. A factorial design, unlike a two group design:
a. allows more independent variables to be studied
b. requires a larger sample
c. shows the effect of an independent variable on the dependent variable
d. cannot detect a curvilinear relationship between variables

a. allows more independent variables to be studied -- In a two group design, one group is exposed to a treatment and another, control group, is not exposed or gets a different treatment. The results of both groups are tested in order to compare the effects of treatment. A factorial design is a design with more than one independent variable. In this design, the independent variables are simultaneously investigated to determine the independent and interactive influence they have on the dependent variable. The effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable (c.) is called a main effect and in a factorial design there are as many main effects as there are independent variables. An interaction effect between two or more independent variables occurs when the effect that one independent variable has on the dependent variable depends on the level of the other independent variable. At least three levels must be used to predict a curvilinear relationship (d.).


10. A psychologist is hired as a consultant by an agency which works with homosexual men whose behavior places them at very high risk for the HIV virus. The psychologist is asked to work with groups of the agency's clients, with the goal of decreasing high-risk activity in this population. Assuming the psychologist is familiar with the research in this area, she is most likely to take which of the following approaches?
a. attempting to engender a group norm of disapproval for high-risk activity
b. providing knowledge to the group about AIDS
c. threatening the group with punishment if they don't change their behavior
d. taking a laissez-faire approach and letting the group learn on its own how dangerous its behavior is

b. providing knowledge to the group about AIDS -- Studies show that, among individuals who are at high-risk for the AIDS virus, knowledge about AIDS is a better predictor of less risk-taking behavior than perceived peer norms. Thus, choice B is the best answer. By contrast, among low-risk groups, perceived peer norms are a better predictor. So if this question was about the best strategy for low-risk groups, choice A would have been a better answer.


11. Individuals who recall memories under hypnosis, compared to non-hypnotized individuals,
a. have more confidence in their memories and are more likely to recall events accurately.
b. have more confidence in their memories but are less likely to recall events accurately.
c. have less confidence in their memories and are less likely to recall events accurately.
d. have less confidence in their memories but are more likely to recall events accurately.

b. have more confidence in their memories but are less likely to recall events accurately. -- Research shows that memories retrieved under hypnosis tend to be less accurate than other memories. Nonetheless, individuals who recall information while under hypnosis have greater confidence in their memories as compared to controls. In some research studies, hypnotized subjects were reluctant to admit that their memories were inaccurate even when confronted with clear evidence demonstrating this to be the case.


12. A client suspects that she may have been sexually abused as a child, although she has no conscious recollection of the abuse. She asks her psychologist to use hypnosis to help her retrieve any repressed memories she may have of any abuse. The psychologist should:
a. agree to use hypnosis only if he or she has obtained adequate training and experience in it's use.
b. agree to use hypnosis but take detailed notes in the event of future legal action and avoid asking the client any leading questions.
c. advise against the use hypnosis, but recommend the use of guided imagery, which may be more admissible in court.
d. advise the patient that hypnosis may produce false recollections of abuse and is therefore inappropriate.

d. advise the patient that hypnosis may produce false recollections of abuse and is therefore inappropriate. -- In a report titled "Final Conclusions of the American Psychological Association Working Group on Investigation of Memories of Childhood Abuse" [Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 2000, 4 (4), 933-940] the authors acknowledge that "it is possible for memories of abuse that have been forgotten for a long time to be remembered." However, they recommend that "clients who seek hypnosis as a means of retrieving or confirming their recollections should be advised that it is not an appropriate procedure for this goal because of the serious risk that pseudomemories may be created in trance states and of the related risk due to increased confidence in those memories. Clients should also be informed that the use of hypnosis could jeopardize any future legal actions they might want to take."


13. Recent studies investigating ethnicity and psychotropic medication dosage have found:
a. Therapeutic and side effect differences are not related to race/ethnicity
b. Caucasians and Asians experience the same severity of side effects from the same dose, although Caucasians require lower doses to obtain the same therapeutic effects.
c. Caucasians experience more severe side effects from the same dose than Asians and require lower doses to obtain the same therapeutic effects
d. Asians experience more severe side effects from the same dose and require lower doses to obtain the same therapeutic effects

d. Asians experience more severe side effects from the same dose and require lower doses to obtain the same therapeutic effects -- Research indicates individuals respond differently to psychotropic medications based on their ethnic background or biological and environmental differences in ethnicity. In particular, evidence suggests Asian patients, as a group, metabolize medications like psychotropics more slowly than Caucasian patients and therefore are more sensitive to the therapeutic and side effects. Based on these findings, researchers recommend the starting dosage level for Asian patients be lower than the standard dosage for Caucasian patients. (See: Lin, K. M. & Cheung, F. (1999) Mental health issues for Asian Americans, Psychiatric Services, 50(6), 774-780. and Lin, K.M.. & Smith, M.W. (2000). Psychopharmacotherapy in the Context of Culture and Ethnicity in Ethnicity and Psychopharmacology. Edited by Pedro Ruiz ( Review of Psychiatry Series, 19(4). Oldham, J.O. and Riba, M.B., (Eds.), Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press, 1-27)


14. According to the research findings of Patterson and his colleagues, parents of aggressive children typically use discipline which is:
a. consistent, but accompanied by humiliating verbal messages
b. consistent, but often followed by affection which sends mixed messages to the child
c. inconsistent, and often not associated with the child's behavior
d. inconsistent, but which particularly ignores the child's aggressive behaviors

c. inconsistent, and often not associated with the child's behavior -- Patterson found that parents of aggressive children often use harsh physical punishment which is applied inconsistently and often not connected to the child's behavior. Contrary to choice D, these parents tend to reinforce aggressive behavior in their children with attention or approval.


15. Despite his many accomplishments and positive feedback from his supervisor, a client believes his work performance is below average because he feels like a failure. This is an example of:
a. minimization
b. selective abstraction
c. emotional reasoning
d. personalization

c. emotional reasoning -- Emotional reasoning is one of several cognitive distortions described by Beck. It refers to a person believing that because he or she feels a negative emotion, there must be a corresponding negative external situation. Minimization (A) is seeing something as less significant than it really is. Selective abstraction (B) occurs when one focuses on a detail, taken out of context, at the expense of other information. Personalization (D) is the attribution of external events to oneself without evidence of a causal connection.


16. Organizations that advocate individual responsibility, consensual-decision making, slow promotion, and holistic knowledge of the organization are using which of the following management philosophies:
a. Theory J
b. Theory A
c. Theory Z
d. TQM

c. Theory Z -- Ouchi’s Theory Z is an organizational management philosophy that incorporates aspects from traditional American (Theory A) and Japanese (Theory J) management philosophies. The theory represents a middle ground, for example, emphasizing long-term employment versus short-term or lifelong and a moderately specialized career path instead of specialized or nonspecialized.


17. When a pregnant woman drinks moderate amounts of alcohol during pregnancy, the child may exhibit "fetal alcohol effects." In comparison to the full-scale fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), fetal alcohol effects
a. are less severe than those associated with FAS and, for the most part, are reversible.
b. are less severe than those associated with FAS and are largely reversible following birth as long as the child is provided with adequate nutrition and an enriched environment.
c. are less severe than those associated with FAS but are also largely irreversible.
d. involve minor physical defects and behavioral problems without the cognitive impairments and more severe physical problems associated with FAS.

c. are less severe than those associated with FAS but are also largely irreversible. -- Different authors define fetal alcohol effects differently. All seem to agree that fetal alcohol effects are less severe than the symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome, but are also largely irreversible. Some describe fetal alcohol effects as involving cognitive and behavioral symptoms but not the physical defects (e.g., facial abnormalities and growth retardation) that the full-scale syndrome involves.


18. In a positively skewed distribution, one would most likely find, ranked from lowest to highest in value, the:
a. median, mean, mode.
b. median, mode, mean.
c. mean, mode, median.
d. mode, median, mean.

d. mode, median, mean. -- You have to picture the positively skewed curve in order to get this correct. Positive skewness means there are some outliers (extreme scores) way over on the positive side. That's where the tail is, way off to the right, or positive, end. Since the mean takes into account the magnitude of the scores, these outliers can be pictured as "pulling" the mean to the positive side, or the right. So, in any ordering of measures of central tendency, the mean would be the highest value. Thus, you can eliminate the two distractors that don't list the mean as the highest value. To distinguish between the remaining answers, let's go back to consider what the median is. The median is the middlemost point irrespective of value. If you've pictured the curve correctly you can see that more than half the cases fall on the right side because some are way over on the positive side. If you put a line where the highest point is on the curve, which is the mode, you'd see that more than half the cases fall to the right of that line. Hence the median, the 50% point, is to the right of the high point, the mode. This should have gotten you to the correct answer.


19. A woman is offered a substantial raise and promotion in her job; however, the new position would also require her to periodically speak at conferences. She would very much like to accept the new position but is too afraid to speak in public due to her history of panic attacks in the past while public speaking. She would most likely be diagnosed with:
a. Specific Phobia
b. Social Phobia
c. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
d. Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia

b. Social Phobia -- According to DSM-IV-TR, Social Phobia is characterized by "a marked and persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations in which the person is exposed to unfamiliar people or to possible scrutiny by others...Exposure to the feared social situation almost invariably provokes anxiety, which may take the form of a situationally bound or situationally predisposed Panic Attack." Specific Phobia (A) refers to anxiety about a specific object or situation but it is not diagnosed when better accounted for by another mental disorder, such as Social Phobia. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (C) is for excessive anxiety and worry about several different events or activities. And Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia (D) is not confined to social situations or fear of scrutiny by others.


20. When working in a forensic capacity, psychologists must often be careful to
a. acknowledge the limits of their data or conclusions.
b. take the time to study the facts of the case so they can arrive at their own conclusion regarding the guilt or innocence of the defendant.
c. be present every day of the trial in case the judge requires the psychologist's opinion at some point.
d. present their conclusions very forcefully and with confidence, so that the public's confidence in the field of psychology is reinforced.

a. acknowledge the limits of their data or conclusions. -- It's often important for forensic psychologists to acknowledge the limits of their conclusions. This is because forensic psychologists are often asked for opinions on matters (e.g., probability of future violence) that cannot be made with absolute certainty.


21. Medical treatment regimens for chronic illness most often results in:
a. greater compliance for children as compared to adolescents
b. greater compliance for adolescents as compared to children
c. equal compliance for children and adolescents
d. greater compliance for girls and adolescent females as compared to boys and adolescent males

a. greater compliance for children as compared to adolescents -- Compliance with medical treatment regimens, such as those designed to manage diabetes, tends to be lower for adolescents as compared to children or adults. There are many reasons for this, including adolescents' greater desire to be similar to their peers and independent from the restrictions of their parents.


22. Research on infants who were raised by multiple changing caregivers until at least two years old were found to:
a. never be able to develop attachments
b. attach to adopted parents only if they were adopted by 36 months of age
c. attach more strongly if restored to a biological parent than if adopted by a non-biological parent
d. attach to adopted parents even if not adopted until 6 years of age

d. attach to adopted parents even if not adopted until 6 years of age


23. An 18-year-old high school student is referred to you for personality assessment due to behavioral problems. Which of the following assessment instruments would be most appropriate to use?
b. MMPI-2
d. Halstead-Reitan

a. MMPI-A -- Knowing that the MMPI-A is recommended for use with ages 14 to 18, while the MMPI-2 is recommended for individuals 18 years and older, may have left you a bit stumped about which to use for an 18-year-old. The MMPI-A manual acknowledges this period of overlap and recommends choosing the instrument on a "case by case basis," but it also suggests using the MMPI-A for high school students. Furthermore, in a recent study comparing the MMPI-A and MMPI-2 administered to 18-year-olds, the researchers concluded that the MMPI-2 tended to overpathologize and the MMPI-A tended to underpathologize. Due, in part, to the concern with overpathologizing individuals, the researchers recommended using the MMPI-A with 18-year-olds. But to optimally gain sensitivity to psychopathology, they also recommended using T-score cutoffs of 60 instead of 65 on the MMPI-A [T. M. Osberg and D. L. Poland, Comparative accuracy of the MMPI-2 and the MMPI-A in the diagnosis of psychopathology in 18-year-olds, Psychological Assessment, 2002, 14(2), 164-169].


24. The notion that reinforcement is not necessary for learning and that learning does not always manifest in performance is referred to as:
a. latent learning
b. place learning
c. observational learning
d. insight learning

a. latent learning -- According to Tolman’s Cognitive Learning Theory, learning is the result of conditioning and cognitive understanding. The acquisition of cognitive structures or cognitive maps underlies the concept of latent learning or learning that occurs without reinforcement and does not immediately manifest in behavior. Place learning (b.) refers to Tolman’s description of learning places or paths instead of a series of movements in response to specific stimuli. Observational learning (c.) refers to learning through watching a model behave and then imitating the modeled behavior. Insight learning (d.) is an “a-ha!” experience or a sudden novel solution, which Kohler saw as the result of a sudden internal cognitive restructuring of the environment.


25. A researcher inquires about the subjects’ performance expectations and beliefs about the purpose of the study at the conclusion of the experiment. The researcher finds the subjects’ actual performance is consistent with their beliefs and expectations when analyzing the data. The results of the study may be confounded by:
a. the Hawthorne effect
b. demand characteristics
c. carryover effects
d. changing criteria

b. demand characteristics -- Demand characteristics are unintentional cues in the experimental environment or manipulation that affect or account for the results of the study. In this situation, the subjects’ may have acted in ways consistent with their expectations rather than simply in response to the experimental manipulation. The Hawthorne effect (a.) occurs when research subjects act differently because of the novelty of the situation and the special attention they receive as research participants. Carryover effects (c.) occur in repeated measures designs when the effects of one treatment have an impact on the effects of subsequent treatments.


26. Factitious Disorder treatment typically involves symptom management rather than curing the disorder. Which of the following is currently considered to be the most effective treatment?
a. confrontational therapy in an inpatient setting
b. individual and group therapy in an inpatient treatment
c. supportive psychotherapy in an outpatient setting
d. group or family therapy in an outpatient setting

c. supportive psychotherapy in an outpatient setting -- Studies indicate no specific treatment has been identified as consistently effective for Factitious Disorder; however, many agree that establishing a good therapeutic relationship and providing supportive therapy and consistency of care is the best way to manage its symptoms. (See: J. C. Huffman and T. A. Stern, The diagnosis and treatment of Munchausen’s syndrome, General Hospital Psychiatry, 2003, 25(5), 358-363.) Family and group therapy (d.) have not been identified as the most effective treatments, although family therapy may be useful for helping family members cope with the patient’s symptoms. Inpatient treatment (a.) is often contraindicated because of the underlying need of individuals with Factitious Disorder “to adopt the sick role.” Confrontational techniques (b.) may elicits denial and result in the individual terminating the therapeutic relationship so they must be used with caution.


27. The results of the Robber's Cave experiment (Sherif et al., 1961) indicated that:
a. emotional reactions are based upon cognitive interpretations of arousal
b. superordinate goals reduce hostility between groups
c. we prefer to be right rather than happy
d. we tend to seek, interpret, and create information that verifies our existing beliefs

b. superordinate goals reduce hostility between groups -- In Sherif's Robber's Cave Study, children in a summer camp were divided into two groups on an arbitrary basis and made to engage in competition with each other. This engendered intergroup hostility and dislike, which was found to be greatly reduced when a task requiring the two groups to cooperate (on superordinate goals) was introduced. Choice A represents Schachter's two-factor theory of emotion. Choice C is a conclusion of Self Verification Theory. And Choice D exemplifies the confirmatory bias.


28. Individuals with Tourette’s Disorder frequently suffer from a learning disorder in school. The most likely cause is:
a. expressive language disorder
b. attentional and hyperactivity problems
c. social problems
d. environmental stressors

b. attentional and hyperactivity problems -- Although learning problems are associated with the disorder, children with Tourette’s Syndrome (TS) as a group have the same range of IQ as the population at large. The etiology of learning disabilities (LD), as well as the most accurate conceptualization of them as either comorbid disorders or as prevalent, variable components of the broader TS phenotype, has yet to be determined. In a recent study of more than 3100 children with Tourette’s, ADHD was the most prevalent comorbid disorder occurring in 58% of subjects. Of those with TS plus learning disabilities, 80% also had a diagnosis of ADHD. The increased rates of ADHD in those diagnosed with TS + LD and the finding that only 11 % of the TS children without ADHD had a diagnosis of LD demonstrates the potential impact of ADHD on LD as a causal factor or as a confounder for the diagnosis of LD. (L. Burd, L., Freeman, R.D., Klug, M.G. and Kerbeshian, J. (2005). Tourette syndrome and learning disabilities, BioMed Central Pediatrics, 5)


29. In Super's theory of career development, the rainbow is used to illustrate:
a. the skills, abilities, and knowledge that a person brings to a job.
b. the different roles a person assumes during the course of his or her life.
c. the stages of career maturity.
d. the social and other environmental determinants of career choice.

b. the different roles a person assumes during the course of his or her life. -- In his recent writings, Super depicts various aspects of his theory of career development with illustrations. His "life career rainbow" depicts nine major life roles (e.g., student, parent, spouse) that have an impact on a person's career choice.


30. The majority of child sex abusers when asked about their abusive behaviors:
a. deny the abuse but eventually admit their actions and express remorse after psychotherapy
b. admit their behavior but minimize the harmful effects on or blame the child
c. admit their actions, express shame and embarrassment, and say they will never do it again
d. claim they were unable to control their impulses

b. admit their behavior but minimize the harmful effects on or blame the child --. A number of similar characteristics has been identified by research on child sex abusers and studies indicate that the majority of child sex abusers and other sex offenders minimize, rationalize, or justify their abusive behaviors. One such study presented at the 15th Annual Symposium of the American College of Forensic Psychology in 1999, found 57% of subjects admitted engaging in sexual behaviors with a child but minimized the behavior in some way. (See: R. Underwager and H. Wakefield. Sex offender treatment requiring admission of guilt, presented at the 15th Annual Symposium of the American College of Forensic Psychology, April 29, 1999, Santa Fe, New Mexico.)