Ethnicity and Crime (3 - Victimisation) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ethnicity and Crime (3 - Victimisation) Deck (14):

When does racist victimisation occur?

- when an individual is targetted because of their race, religion or ethnicity


What two sources on racist victimisation do we have?

- the CSEW (Crime Survey for England and Wales) and police recorded statistics


What do the CSEW and police recorded statistics mainly cover?

- racist incidents (words, images, signs)
- racially or religiously aggravated offences (harassment, criminal damage)


How many racist incidents were recorded in England and Wales in 2014/15?

- 54,000 (mostly property damage/ verbal harassment)


Although there were 54,000 racist incidents recorded in 2014/15 - how many did the CSEW estimate?

- 89,000


Why might many racist incidents go unreported?

- might be hostile to police
- might not think the police can handle it/ believe them
- might be a regular occurrence so they're used to it/ don't think it's worth it


How many people were prosecuted for racially aggravated offences in 2014? Is it a high conviction rate?

- 8,600 people
- no


Which group did the 2014/15 conclude that had the highest risk of becoming a victim?

- those of mixed race backgrounds


How may differences in victimisation be partly the result of other factors than ethnicity? How could it still be ethnicity?

- violent crime includes factors such as being young, male, unemployed
- ethnic groups with a higher proportion of young males are more likely to have higher rates of victimisation
- some factors eg. unemployment may be connected to racial discrimination


While the statistics can record the instances of victimisation, they do not necessarily capture the victims' experience of the crime. Give an example

- Sampson and Philips: racist victimisation tends to be ongoing overtime with repeated 'minor' instances of abuse and harassment with occasional physical violence


Due to racial victimisation tending to be particularly ongoing - what needs to be considered?

- the long-term psychological impact of these crimes needs to be measured, not just the physical injury or damage to property


What might the lasting effects of racial victimisation on society be?

- anger
- hostility
- lack of integration
- taking the law into their own hands


How have members of ethnic minorities often been active in responding to victimisation?

- situational crime prevention
- eg. fireproof doors, self-defence campaigns, defending neighbourhoods


Why might ethnic minorities turn to situational crime prevention rather than the police?

- examples in the past of police ignoring racist aspects of victimisation/ not investigating them properly
eg. Stephen Lawrence case marred by incompetence, institutional racism, failure of leadership
- may not be understanding/ not sympathetic
- police can be openly hostile