Flashcards in Ethnicity And Crime Deck (52)
What are the 3 main sources of statistics on ethnicity and crime?
1). Official stats.
2). Victim surveys.
3). Self-report studies.
What do official stats show about ethnicity and crime?
Ethnic differences in the likelihood of being involved in the CJS.
What statistics support official stats uses on ethnicity and crime?
-7x more likely than whites to be stopped and searched.
- 5x more likely to be in prison.
What do victim surveys show about ethnicity and crime?
Shows the crimes BAME are more likely to commit, as it asks victims to name the ethnicity of the criminal.
What statistics support the use of victim surveys in determining BAME crimes?
'Mugging' = black people more likely to be identified as offenders.
What do self-report studies show about ethnicity and crime?
Ethnic differences in rates of offences.
What statistics show the use of self-report studies on ethnic differences in crime?
Graham and Bowling (1995) =
- blacks and whites = almost identical rates of offending.
Evaluate each source of statistics for ethnicity and crime?
1). Official statistics =
- could just show BAME are more likely to be prosecuted of an offence.
2). Victim surveys =
- rely on the honesty of the respondent, also a low attrition rate.
3). Self-report studies =
- rely on honesty of individuals.
Is the evidence on ethnicity and offending consistent?
- official stats + victim surveys = higher rates of black offending.
- self-report studies = lower rates of black offending.
What are the different stages of the CJS that BAME experience racism?
2). Stop and search.
3). Arrests and cautions.
4). Prosecution and trial.
5). Sentencing and prison.
Who says there has been many allegations of oppressive policing of ethnic minorities?
Phillips and Bowling (2007).
What are some examples of racist policing Phillips and Bowling use?
1). Mass stop and search operations.
2). Paramilitary tactics.
3). Excessive surveillance.
4). Armed raids.
5). Police violence and deaths in custody.
What concept is similar to Phillip and Bowling's claim?
Lea and Young's military policing (which shouldn't be used).
How many times more likely are black people to be stopped and searched, compare to white people?
How many times more likely are Asians to be stopped and searched?
3x --> under the Terrorism Act 2000.
What are the 3 explanations for these stop and search patterns.?
1). Ethnic differences in offending =
- some ethnic groups are more likely to offend.
2). Police racism =
- police more likely to discriminate in 'high discretion stops' (police act without information).
3). Demographic factors =
- BAME have a high proportion of groups most likely to be stopped (young, unemployed and urban dwellers).
Which historical event relates to the evidence of police racism?
The Macpherson Report (1999) =
- institutional racism in met police.
- so infused that nobody notices.
- follows Stephen Lawrence death.
What is the arrest rate for blacks?
Over 3x than the rate for whites.
Why are blacks and Asians less likely to receive a caution once arrested?
Because they are less likely to admit the offence, so they are more likely to be charged.
What prosecution service decides whether a case brought to the police should be prosecuted?
Crown Prosecution Service (CPS).
Is the CPS more likely to proceed cases against BAME?
- more likely to drop cases against them.
Are BAME more likely to be found guilty than whites.
Why are BAME cases often elected from Crown Court trials, rather than magistrates' court?
- less likely to plead guilty due to mistrust of magistrates.
- less likely to trust the police, so don't accept a plea.
Why do BAME cases often appear more severe than whites?
Because they are often elected from Crown Courts =
- they impose harsher sentences.
How does the prosecutions and trials of BAME contribute to polices stereotypes?
Police think their crimes are more severe =
- so typify them more.
- causing a deviance amplification spiral (labelling).
What percentage of male BAME are more likely to plea not guilty in Crown Courts?
52%, compared to whites of similar cases.
Which ethnic group has the highest proportion of prison sentences?
Black, compared to whites and Asians.
What did Hood (1992) find about sentencing of blacks?
Even with seriousness and previous convictions are taken into account =
- black men = 5% more likely to be jailed.
How many times more likely are blacks to be in prison?