Flashcards in Control, Punishment And Prevention Of Crime Deck (57)
What are the 3 ways of preventing and controlling crime?
1). Situational crime prevention =
specific crimes in specific areas.
2). Environmental crime prevention =
3). Social and community crime prevention =
dealing with social structure.
What is situational crime prevention (SCP)?
Managing and altering specific crimes in specific areas =
- increase risk of being caught.
- reduce rewards (rational choice).
What are some example of SCP?
1). Blue lights in club toilets = prevents injecting drugs (can't see veins).
2). Spikes in doorways = prevent vagrancy.
3). CCTV = increases burglar's effort, decreasing crime.
1). Explains opportunistic petty street crimes =
but not white collar/corporate crimes.
2). Violent/drug related crimes are difficult to define as rational choice.
3). Displacement =
people may commit the crime in a different area.
What is environmental crime prevention?
- 'broken window' theory = fixing any disorder before it escalates (immediately).
- absence of informal/formal social control means members of the community feel powerless and intimidated.
What is an example of environmental crime prevention?
Zero tolerance policy =
used in New York and resolved the public's trust and powerless issues.
Evaluate environmental crime prevention?
1). Zero tolerance fall in New York =
more due to increasing police numbers and increasing employment, rather than a crack down on crime.
What is social and community crime prevention?
Instead of policing crime, this deals with social structures that prevents future crime.
- long-term crime prevention = rather than tackling immediate/short-term crime, it focuses on the root causes of crime.
What is an example of social and community crime prevention?
Increasing employment policies =
- as this is a cause of crime, increasing employment reduces crime rates.
Which approach does each crime prevention measure relate to?
1). Situational crime prevention = right realism.
2). Environmental crime prevention = right realism.
3). Social and community crime prevention = left realism.
What is surveillance?
Monitoring behaviour for the purpose of control =
- observing people to gather data about them.
- using this data to regulate their behaviour.
What theory did Foucault develop?
Panopticon (1977) =
- In his book "Discipline and punish" he contrasts 2 different forms of punishment.
What were the 2 forms of punishment Foucault discussed?
1). Sovereign power (before 19th Century) =
- the monarch exercised physical power through visible spectacles (e.g. public execution).
2). Disciplinary power (after 19th Century) =
- seeks to govern not just the body, but also the mind through surveillance (e.g. self-discipline).
What type of power is the Panopticon?
What is the Panoticon?
A design of prison =
- prisoners are visible to guards, but the guards aren't visible to the prisoners.
What types of surveillance does the Panoticon enforce?
Prisoners behave as if they are constantly being watched =
- self-surveillance + discipline = self-discipline.
What is carceral archiapelgo?
Series of prison islands =
- surveillance is exercised in other institutions, not just prisons (schools, factories, etc).
- disciplinary power is now everywhere in society.
How is Foucault criticised?
1). He argues the expressive emotional aspects of crime have disappeared =
- some are still expressed emotionally (peado = harsh prison sentence).
2). He exaggerates the extent of control.
3). He overestimates the power of surveillance to change behaviour.
What is the issue of CCTV as a form of the Panoticon?
CCTV only reduced crime in car parks =
- may cause displacement.
- CCTV assumes people self-discipline.
- however, Gill and Loveday found that burglars and shoplifters were put off by CCTV.
Who developed the Synopticon?
What is the Synopticon?
In late modernity =
- there is an increase in surveillance from the 'top-down', and 'bottom-up'.
- everyone watches everyone.
Whats the difference between the Panoticon and Synopticon?
allows the few to monitor the many.
allows everyone to monitor everyone.
What is an example of the Synopticon?
1). Thompson =
- argues powerful groups (politicians and police) fear media scrutiny (filming police wrongdoing).
2). Dash cams, go-pros =
- these warn other road users that they're being monitored = self-discipline.
What is sousveillance?
Surveillance from below =
a form of citizen journalism --? ordinary people can control those above them through surveillance.
What is an example of sousveillance?
Ordinary people recording the actions of police brutality on black people.
Criticise the synopticon?
MacCahill (2012) =
it doesn't reverse the established 'hierarchy of surveillance'.
- e.g. the police have the power to confiscate cameras of citizen journalists.
How is crime controlled?
What surveillance theories are there?
1). Panopticon - Foucault (1977).
2). Synopticon - Mathiesen (1977).
3). Surveillance assemblages - Haggerty and Ericson (2000).
4). Actuarial justice and risk management - Feeley and Simon (1994).
- Social sifting and categorical suspicion - Lyon (2014).
Who developed surveillance assemblages?
Haggerty and Ericson (2000).