Flashcards in Globalisation, Green Crime, Human Rights and State Crime Deck (49)
What is globalisation?
Increased interconnectedness of societies; what happens in one place impacts others.
What has globalisation caused?
1). Spread of new ICT/technology.
2). Influence of global mass media.
3). Cheap air travel.
4). Deregulation of financial and other market.
Who suggested a globalisation of crime?
Held et al. =
increasing interconnectedness of crime across borders, the spread of transnational organised crime.
What is the term used to study crime?
it doesn't have to be a crime, but be perceived to harm someone in order to study it.
What is meant by 'transgressive theory'?
Theory goes beyond the boundaries of other theories - it allows us to study issues that aren't necessarily illegal.
What did Castell (1998) find?
Suggests there is a global criminal economy worth over £1 trillion per year.
What are the examples Castell uses?
1). Sex tourism =
legitimate looking tourist areas where tourists go to have sex.
2). Drug trades =
trading drugs across borders - worth $300-400 billion annually at street price.
3). Cyber crimes =
crimes committed online.
4). Trafficking body parts =
selling body parts.
5). Money laundering =
spending small amounts of money from organised crime, worth $1.5 trillion annually.
What would Marxists argue about trafficking body parts?
If the bourgeoisie can't get a donor, they have enough money to buy it from the proletariat, a form of exploitation.
How does the demand of drugs cause crime in Third World Countries?
In third world countries, peasants find it more profitable to produce drugs instead of traditional crops, for the Western world.
What is global 'risk consciousness'?
Risk is seen as global rather than local.
e.g. economic migration (asylum seekers) increases anxiety in The West.
Lead to social control (increased border control).
Which Marxist argues that globalisation has led to greater inequality?
According to Taylor, has globalisation increased crime of the poor and rich?
What does Taylor say increased crime of the poor?
1). Job insecurity and inequality of wages =
- de-industrialisation of the West.
- low wages abroad.
- relative deprivation globally = encourages crime (especially in drug industries).
How does Taylor say globalisation has increased crime of the rich?
1). Deregulation of financial markets (government has little control over economies) =
- allows insider trading and tax evasion.
- creates large-scale criminal opportunities.
How has the media tried to reduce insider trading and tax evasion?
By publicising those that attempt it =
- tried to deter people from attempting it.
- but it has made little impact.
How do LR say globalisation has encouraged crime?
Materialistic culture promoted by global media conglomerates =
- encourage people to think of themselves.
- undermines social cohesion and encourages crime.
How does Taylor say new employment patterns has created new opportunities for crime?
e.g. subcontracting to recruit 'flexible' worker (0 hr contracts).
- allows illegal workers (e.g. child labour abroad).
How is Taylor criticised?
1). He doesn't explain why many poor people DON'T turn to crime.
What are the 2 patterns of criminal organisations created by globalisation?
1). 'Glocal' system.
What do Hobbs and Dunningham mean by a 'glocal' system?
Globalisation has impacted local crimes =
- local criminals rely on globalisation to commit crime.
- global and local crimes are interlinked.
- crime is locally based, with global connections.
What is an example of a 'glocal' system?
Drug industry =
- bought locally, sold globally.
- can result in negative impacts locally (US drug bust = impact local drug trade as there would be none).
What does Glenny (2008) mean by the McMafia?
Organisations formed in Russia and Eastern Europe after the fall of communism (1989).
What percentage of the world GDP is organised crime?
How did the fall of communism lead to the formation of organised crimes?
- Deregulated the Russian market.
- Commodities (oil, gas, metals, etc) stayed at a Soviet price, and locals who could afford it bought them, and sold them on the expensive world market.
- This created capitalism.
- Capitalists turned to the Mafia (ex-state/secret servicemen) to protect them.
- The Mafia assisted the movement of products, and ensured protection of wealth.
What is meant by green crimes?
Crimes that inflict harm on the environment, and animals.
Who says that we are in a 'global risk society'?
- most threats to human well being = human-made.
What does Beck describe late modern society as a 'global risk society'?
In late modernity =
- mass production = 'manufactured risks'.
What are 'manufactured risks'?
Risks we haven't seen before, which humans made.
- e.g. climate change.
How does Beck say these 'manufactured risks' have become global?
e.g. pollution =
- it's everywhere, mass produced by factories in the West.
- the West's global warming has created risks/harm to the environment everywhere.