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Biomedical Ethics > Euthanasia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Euthanasia Deck (22)
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1
Q

Euthanasia

A

directly or indirectly bringing about the death of another person for that person’s sake
- a “good death”

2
Q

Moral conflicts

A
  1. the nonmaleficence principle of physicians
  2. principle of saving lives
  3. autonomy principle: patient controll
  4. beneficence principle: end suffering/create happiness
  5. justice: treat the least well off fairly
3
Q

When is death

A
  1. complete cessation of all biological functions?
  2. whole brain death?
  3. higher brain death?
4
Q

whole brain death

A

all brain functions permanently cease

5
Q

higher brain death

A

higher brain functions responsible for consciousness permanently cease

6
Q

passive euthanasia

A

allowing someone to die by not doing something that would prolong life
- legal in the U.S.

7
Q

ex. of passive euthanasia

A
  • removing a feeding tube/ventilator
  • failing to perform necessary procedure
  • refraining from giving life sustaining medicine
8
Q

active euthanasia

A

performing an action that directly causes someone to die (administering a lethal injection; gas, etc.)

  • not legal in U.S.
  • legal in netherlands, belgium, colombia, canada
9
Q

voluntary

A

situations in which competent patients request or agree to euthanasia, communicating their wishes while competent or through instructions if they become incompetent (advanced directives/living will).

10
Q

voluntary passive

A

legal in U.S.

11
Q

voluntary active

A

illegal in the U.S.

12
Q

Nonvoluntary

A

Performed when patients not competent to choose and have not previously disclosed their preferences

13
Q

ex. of nonvoluntary

A
  • adults who have become incompetent
  • adults who have never been competent
  • children (usually decided by family, physician, or other designated person
14
Q

involuntary euthanasia

A

Bring about someone’s death against their will or without asking them to decide.

15
Q

what is the worry

A

legalization of active euthanasia will create a slipperly slope that leads to involuntary euthanasia

16
Q

active voluntary (matrix)

A

directly causing death with consent of patient

17
Q

active nonvoluntary (matrix)

A

directly causing death without consent of patient

18
Q

passive voluntary (matrix)

A

withholding/withdrawing life sustaining measures with consent of patient

19
Q

passive nonvoluntary

A

withholding/withdrawing life sustaining measures without the consent of the patient

20
Q

physician-assisted suicide

A

patient takes their own life with aid of a physician

21
Q

oregon’s death with dignity act

A
  • final 6 months of terminal illness
  • two oral and one written request, separated by 2 weeks
  • must be mentally competent
  • 2 doctors must confirm the diagnosis
  • p. 632
22
Q

kant and euthanasia

A

against it because of the dignity of human life. but what about incompetent people