Everything for TEST 1! Flashcards Preview

Nursing Semester 2 (Med surg & Peds) > Everything for TEST 1! > Flashcards

Flashcards in Everything for TEST 1! Deck (74)
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1

Similarities of Crohn's and Ulcerative Colitis

Both a form of IBD (inflammatory bowel disease)

Both cause inflammation & ulcer formation

Cause is UNKNOWN- suggested due to a faulty immune system in overdrive...may be triggered by environment and genetics

Flare ups are common followed by remission

Increased risk of colon cancer

2

Cirrhosis complications

jaundice

ascites

portal hypertension

neurologic changes (buildup in ammonia that crosses blood brain barrier- delirium)

3

Medication used to decrease bilirubin levels

lactulose therapy

4

Leading cause of liver cancer:

cirrhosis

5

Major cause of cirrhosis

hepatitis c (major)

fatty liver can also induce cirrhosis

prolonged and excessive use of alcohol (alcohol subjects liver to stress)

6

clinical manifestations

Elevated liver enzymes (CBC, pro-thrombin)

distended abdomen

firm abdomen

weight loss, fatigue

dry skin, rashes, ecchymosis

vascular lesions with red center

tendency to bleed

spider angioma

7

clinical manifestations

Elevated liver enzymes (CBC, pro-thrombin)

distended abdomen

firm abdomen

weight loss, fatigue

8

diagnosis for liver cirrhosis

MRI

CT scan

9

Nonsurgical Interventions for cirrhosis

pain management

nutritional therapy

low sodium diet, fluid and electrolyte

10

Drugs to be given to cirrhosis patients

diuretics

antibiotics sometimes given

11

Hepatitis can occur during a

secondary infection

infection from another virus

12

Hepatitis can occur during a

secondary infection

infection from another virus

13

Hep A transmission

fecal-oral route

14

Hep B transmission

through sexual intercourse with affected parter

through contact with blood or other body fluids

15

symptoms of hep B

anorexia

nausea

fatigue

fever

right upper quadrant pain

joint pain

jaundice

light stool?

16

which hepatitis is waterborne

Hep E!

India, africa, Middle East, countries that don't have source of clean water

17

which hepatitis is waterborne

Hep E!

18

major difference between chronic and acute hepatitis

chronic is reoccurring (chronic more specific to B and C)

acute: first attack, may progress to chronic

19

clinical manifestations of liver cancer

ascites

edema

20

Transplant complications

rejection!

infection

21

2 types of cholecystitis

acute

chronic

22

2 types of cholecystitis

acute

chronic

23

Goal of drug therapy for GI disorders is to treat:

peptic ulcers

nausea

constipation

diarrhea

IBS

IBD

24

Histamine2- Receptor Antagonists purpose:

Gastric and duodenal ulcers

heartburn, dyspepsia

Erosive esophagitis

Gastrointestinal reflux disease (GERD)

Aspiration pneumonitis

Hypersecretory disorders (Zollinger-Ellison syndrome [gastrin]), systemic mastocytosis [histamine])

25

Histamine2-Receptor Antagonist drugs:

Prototype drug: ranitidine hydrochloride (ZANTAC)

Cimetidine (TAGAMET)

Famotidine (PEPCID)

26

Physiologic change in compartment syndrome:

increased compartment pressure

increased capillary permeability

release of histamine

increased blood flow to area

pressure on nerve endings

increased tissue pressure

decreased oxygen to tissues

increased production of LACTIC ACID

muscle ischemia

tissue necrosis

27

Clinical findings of compartment syndrome:

edema

pulses present

pink tissue

pain

cyanosis

allow

unequal pulses

tense muscle swelling

tingling

numbness

severe pain unrelieved by drugs

paralysis

28

What is a fat embolism?

fat globules are released from the yellow bone marrow into the bloodstream within 12 - 48 hours after an injury or other illness

these globules clog small blood vessels that supply vital organs- most commonly the lungs, and impair organ perfusion

29

Fat embolism syndrome (FES) usually results from

fractures or fracture repair but occasionally is seen in patients who have total joint replacement

30

Early manifestations of FES:

hypoxemia

dyspnea

tachypnea

headache

lethargy

agitation

confusion

decreased level of consciousness

PETECHIA (a macular, measles-like rash may appear over the neck, upper arms and chest- NOT PRESENT IN DVT)