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What is patient-centred care?

involves co-production - using the patient and carers experineces to help plan, deliver and evaluate care 


Why is patient-centred care important?

  • improves the patients' knowledge, skills and confidence
  • improves patient satisfaction 
  • improves health behaviours and overall health status


what is collaborative care?

involving the patient, their family/carers and other healthcare professionals in the planning and execution of care 


Why is collaberative care important 

  • Helps to set realistic expectations for the patient
  • Ensures that goals are SMART and related to the patients understanding of the condition 
  • Patient is more likely to commit to the treatment plan


why are function task-based exercises important?

improve motor control by challenging ROM, strength, pain and cognition at the same time


Why is early intervention important?

Neuroplasticity is time-dependant and so earlier intervention gives the greatest potential for neuronal remodelling


What type of predictors should be used?

Realistic predictions - allow patients to understand their expectations


Do not rule out hope


Why is the use of predictors important?

Allows optimism for the patient - increasing adherence

Allows the therapist to select appropriate interventions 

Allows patients to set clearer expectations 


How many repetitions and why?

High numbers of repetitions (100s) at high intensity - stimulate neuroplasticity by increasing the demand on the sensory, cognitive and motor areas


why is aerobic exercise suitable?

Improves blood flow to the brain which enhances neuroplasticity


What is the focus of movement re-education?

'optimal' movement over 'normal' movement - as the focus is to return to function in patients where full recovery is not possible


When should compensatory strategies NOT be used?

discourage maladaptive strategies - they can cause MSK damage and cause secondary complications which could further reduce mobility


Why is whole-part-whole practice used?

  • Allows the patient to gain strength and motor control before completing the task
  • It is a more realistic practice
  • Achievable by the patient - causing positive feedback


How can positive reinforcement be used and why?

Creating goals and exercises which can be achieved in short-term


Improves patient satisfaction, confidence levels and self-efficacy




How can feedback be provided?

  • visual (e.g. mirrors/video)
  • verbal (e.g. by the therapist)
  • manual (e.g. by the therapist)


Can be provided before, during or after exercise, and maybe continuous or intermittent 


Why is feedback effective?

Targets the cognitive aspects of motor learning 


What are examples of health promotion?

  • Sit less
  • be more active
  • build strength 

Modify activities which the patient enjoys in order to promote daily exercise


What is the benefit of health promotion?

  • Reduces the chances of secondary complications 
  • improves sleep
  • maintains a healthy weight 
  • manages stress
  • overall improves QoL


Why is it important to include family members in treatment planning and execution?

improves adherence to treatment when the patient is not in therapy


What are the 6 principles to follow when treating apathy?

  • Goal setting with the patients
  • Encouragement
  • Class environment to provide peer support
  • Use exercise diary to form progress report
  • Include family when setting HEP
  • Visual and verbal positive feedback