Flashcards in Evidenced Based Medicine Deck (17)
What is evidenced based medicine?
Evidence-based medicine is the integration of best current evidence with clinical expertise and patient values
What are the stages of the evidence pyramid?
case control studies
randomised controlled trials
What is a systematic review?
A review of the evidence on a clearly formulated question that uses systematic and explicit methods to identify, select and critically appraise relevant primary research, and to extract and analyse data from the studies that are included in the review
What do we mean by a randomised trial?
The population receiving the intervention and the population being compared are only different because of random variation
What is a controlled trial?
The intervention is being compared to something else: a placebo, a gold-standard, best practice
To prevent differences between groups at the outset affecting the outcome
To stop the experimenter from selecting which patient gets which treatment
To reduce bias
What are possible controls?
Current best practice
What are the requirements of outcome measures?
specified trial protocols
What is a cohort study?
Two populations, one that has been exposed and one that has not, are compared years later and the incidence of certain diseases is compared between the two populations?
What is a case control study?
Take a group of patients with a disease eg. cancer and find out their histories.
Take a group of patients without the disease and find out their histories.
Compare the histories.
What are the two types of cohort study?
Which is better for estimating risk in general population: prospective or retrospective?
What is relative risk or risk ratio?
Incidence in exposed groups/incidence in not exposed groups
What is absolute risk?
risk in exposed group-risk in non-exposed group
What is an odds ratio?
Odds of having a disease when you have the risk factor/odds of having disease when you dont have the risk factor
When do you use relative risk?