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Flashcards in Evidenced Based Medicine Deck (17)
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1

What is evidenced based medicine?

Evidence-based medicine is the integration of best current evidence with clinical expertise and patient values

2

What are the stages of the evidence pyramid?

Expert opinion
Case reports
case control studies
cohort studies
randomised controlled trials
systematic review

3

What is a systematic review?

A review of the evidence on a clearly formulated question that uses systematic and explicit methods to identify, select and critically appraise relevant primary research, and to extract and analyse data from the studies that are included in the review

4

What do we mean by a randomised trial?

The population receiving the intervention and the population being compared are only different because of random variation

5

What is a controlled trial?

The intervention is being compared to something else: a placebo, a gold-standard, best practice

6

Why randomise?

To prevent differences between groups at the outset affecting the outcome

To stop the experimenter from selecting which patient gets which treatment

To reduce bias

7

What are possible controls?

Placebo
Nothing
Current best practice
“Standard care”
Combinations
(Historical controls)

8

What are the requirements of outcome measures?

Clinically relevant
easily measured
acurately measures
specified trial protocols

9

What is a cohort study?

Two populations, one that has been exposed and one that has not, are compared years later and the incidence of certain diseases is compared between the two populations?

10

What is a case control study?

Take a group of patients with a disease eg. cancer and find out their histories.
Take a group of patients without the disease and find out their histories.
Compare the histories.

11

What are the two types of cohort study?

Prospective
Retrospective

12

Which is better for estimating risk in general population: prospective or retrospective?

Prospective

13

What is relative risk or risk ratio?

Incidence in exposed groups/incidence in not exposed groups

14

What is absolute risk?

risk in exposed group-risk in non-exposed group

15

What is an odds ratio?

Odds of having a disease when you have the risk factor/odds of having disease when you dont have the risk factor

16

When do you use relative risk?

Cohort studies

17

When do you use odds ration?

Case control studies