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What are the differences between hypothesis and theories?

A hypothesis is an educated guess, based on observation. It can be supported or refuted through experimentation or more observation. A hypothesis can be disproven but not be proven true. A theory on the other hand summarizes hypothesis though repeated testing. A theory is valid so long as no evidence disputes it. As evidence accumulates, a hypothesis can become accepted as an explanation of a phenomenon. In inter words, a theory Is a hypothesis that we fail repeatedly to disprove.


Why disprove instead of prove hypotheses?

Because a hypothesis stands to be falsifiable, and as surmounting evidence accumulates, it is crucial to move forward and clarify. Hypotheses serve as a guide for future data collection, they cannot be proven correct if null. If confirmed by a large number of empirical tests, and is powerful in explaining a large variety of related phenomena, it obtains theory status.


What is the intellectual framework evolutionary theory aims to provide?

A framework for the present observed life and biodiversity.


What methods do evolutionary scientists use?

- evolutionary scientists use the scientific method to show how evolution worked and is currently working.
- evolutionary scientists use the comparative method rather than just experimentation, and integrate phylogenic systematics, molecular, morphological, paleontological, and a modern synthesis of a wide array of methods and approaches.


What is the thinking in the modern synthesis of evidence for for evolutionary theories?

A 20th century consensus of ideas from several biological specialities which provides a widely accepted account of evolution. Draws from genetics, cytology, morphology, botany, ecology, paleontology, and systematics.


What is Lamarckian theory? How does it differ from our current thinking?

Lamarcks proposed evolutionary mechanism was the inheritance of acquired characteristics. It entailed that organisms, by striving to meet the demands of their environment, acquire adaptations and pass them by heredity to their offspring- I.e. giraffe long neck trait to stretch for food changes accumulated to produce long necked giraffes. Lamarcks theory was transformational in the sense that individual organisms transform their characteristics through the use and disuse of parts, heredity makes corresponding adjustments to produce evolution. It proposed multiple independent origins of species. Darwin's theory of evolution on the other hand was variational. Evolution occurs at the level of population and includes changes across generations in the organismal characteristics that prevail in the population. Darwin proposed organisms possessing hereditary characteristics that conferred an advantage for survival or reproduction would leave more offspring than would other organisms, causing populations to accumulate across generations the characteristics most favorable to the survival and reproductive success of their bearers. A single common ancestor.


What are the key components of Darwin's evolutionary theory?

The key components of Darwin's evolutionary theories include:
-perpetual change
-multiplication of species
-common descent
-natural selection


What does perpetual change imply? Give an example from Kansas?

Life is not static or constant over time.

-extensive fossil record
- constantly changing lifeforms over human history
- lifeforms changing over human lifetime

-life is NOT cycling between 2 or several states.
- life forms constantly changing in response to the environment or face extinction
- what is today isnt necessarily tomorrow
> Kansas: Cretaceous= mosasaurs, toothed birds,
Pleistocene= saber tooth cat, giant ground sloth, mammoth


What does common ancestry imply?

Common descent assumes all organisms descended from a single common ancestor. Until Darwin others assumed independent origins recognizing the relationships between species.
- common descent predicts a tree like structural relationship between organisms.
- you can trace the ancestor of all present organisms back and infer their phylogenic relationship through homology.
- Darwin dealt with what happened after the first cell evolved, but did not touch on what the origin actually is.


What does homology imply?

That similar structures in different organisms derived from their common ancestor.
-evidence demonstrates shared characters result from the genes of a common origin= homologous genes


What does gradualism change imply?

Essentially, speciation through the gradual accumulation of small, incremental changes. Gradualism implies large differences in anatomical traits which characterize how different species accumulate in incremental changes over long periods of time. This is important because genetic changes having large effects on organismal form are generally harmful to an organism. Some genetic variants that have large effects on organismal form may be beneficial however, and it does not explain all structural differences between species


How are the concepts of gradual change, common ancestry, and homologous structures related?

All three recognize a common ancestor with different organisms related by a tree like structure with different structures in different organisms derived from their common ancestor, and that incremental anatomical differences distinguishing species generally accrued over a long period.


What does punctuated equilibrium imply?

Rapid, episodic speciation.


Why are the morphology and gene based trees often incongruent?

If this were the case, then some skeletal structures either arose multiple times or were lost on some lineages.


What is reproductive, temporal, behavioral, and geographic isolation?

Speciation that results from the evolution of reproductive barriers between geographically separate populations is geographic or allopatric speciation. Temporal isolation involves, for example, different times of sexual maturity in flowering plants. Reproductive isolation involves for example, a collection of mechanisms, behaviors and processes that prevent the members of two different species from mating or producing offspring. Behavior wise, mating rituals prevent and isolate apparently similar groups.


How heritable variation is passed to offspring?

If a trait has a genetic basis it can be passed to offspring.


How is natural selection related to carry capacity, and population growth?

Natural selection is a process that favors certain adaptations over time, leading to evolutionary change. Organisms possess a great potential for reproduction (r= exponential growth) Natural populations don't grow unchecked (logistic growth) / Natural recourses are limited K= carry capacity/ all organisms vary in traits, this variation is heritable and passed to offspring


Describe everything about industrial Melanism?

Industrial Melanism means dark pigmentation in the dark pepper colored moths of England. Prior to 1850 peppered moths we white with black speckling on their wings. Then in 1859 a mutant form appeared reaching frequencies of 98% in some especially polluted industrialized areas like Manchester. Peppered moths hunt at night and are exposed during the day, matching their background to conceal themselves from predators. Soot covered tree trunks and predatory birds found the white moths. When pollution lessened lightly pigmented moth frequency l


What's the difference between micro and macro evolutionary processes?

Whereas macro evolution involves the origin, extinction, and radiation of species, micro evolution involves changes in allele frequencies among short time intervals.


How macro and micro evolution are related?

Both involve similar processes attributed to different time scales. Microevolution pertains to the study of genetic change occurring within populations, to frequencies for variant forms of genes. Macroevolution is on a grand scale including new organismal structures and designs, evolutionary trends, adaptive radiation, phylogenic relationships among species and adaptive radiation. It involves systematics and the comparative method. Both incorporate Neo Darwinism.


How antibiotic resistance emerges in microbial populations?

Because widespread use of antibiotics such as penicillin has caused bacterial strains to evolve resistance to them. As a result of selection, mutations bestowing high resistance, but previously rare in populations increased in frequency. Examples include vancomycin resistant enterococcus and methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus.


Genetic drift And nonrandom mating?

Bottleneck cheetah pop. Decreased genetic variation, a chance fluctuation in allelic frequency from one generation to the next including loss of alleles, and micro evolutionary process. Nonrandom mating includes positive assertive mating where similar genotype mate increasing homozygous character. Affects one or a few traits whereas inbreeding affects all variable traits making rare recessive alleles homozygous, I.e. prairie chickens


What is stabilizing, disruptive, or directional natural selection?

Stabilizing selection favors average values of a trait and disfavors extreme ones. Directional selection favors an extreme value of a phenotype and causes a population average to shift toward it. Disruptive selection is where two different phenotype are favored simultaneously, but their average is disfavored.


How does migration negate the effects of genetic drift and-selection?

All these interact to create an enormous opportunity for genetic change. The subdivision of a species into small populations that exchange migrants promotes rapid adaptive evolution of a species , among populations, particularly favorable new genetic combinations spread throughout the species as a whole. Genetic drift and selection promote divergence among populations. Migration promotes mixing.


What are the 3 domains of life?

Archaea, eukaryota, and bacteria are the 3 domains.


Types of organisms in each domain?

Eukaryota includes all eukaryotes- all plants, animals, fungi, and protists ( such as algae and slime molds)which share nuclei, cytoskeleton and internal organs. bacteria includes all true bacteria- which might live in the guts of animals symbiotically or elsewhere within them, on the roots of plants converting nitrogen into useable form, make up the base of the food web,have great capacity for survival and reproduction, and great age, and archaea includes prokaryotes different from bacteria in membrane structure and ribosomal RNA sequences they live in the open sea in plankton or extreme environments.