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Biology Lecture Exam 1 > Evolution | Study Cards > Flashcards

Flashcards in Evolution | Study Cards Deck (55)
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1

What did Aristotle believe in?

Believed in the Scala of Naturae & Believed that nonliving and living things are "fixed" and do not change over time. He also did not believe that species could go extinct/created.

2

Describe the Scala of Naturae

- A ladder like classification of nature from simplest --> complex.

- Humans were at the top of ladder and even inorganic matter was included (fire, water, wood, etc)

3

What did Geoges Cuvier believe in & what was he the founder of?

He believed in the Theory of Catastrphe & he was the founder of Paleontology

4

What did the Thoery of Catastrophism establish

That extinction was a fact

5

What 2 things did Jean Baptise believe in?

Principle of Use and Disuse & Inheritance of Accquired Traits

6

Describe the Principle of Use and Disuse

The more an organism uses a trait the more it grows in that creatures lifetime. The less likely they use it the more likely it will be erased from a generation.

7

Describe the Inheritance of Acquired Traits

An Organism can pass on to its offspring physical characteristics that the parent accquired through use and disuse

8

What was Lamarck's 3 Contributions?

1) All species change over time

2) New Characteristics are passed from one generaton to the next

3) Organisms change in response to their enviroment

9

What did Charles Darwin do on his voyage?

Observed that plants and animals adapt to their own enviroments

10

List the 3 influences on Darwin:

1) ) Principles of Geology by Charles Lyell:

2) Personal Observations

3) Essay on the Principle of the Population by T.Malthus

11

Describe natural selection

A mechanism for evolution

12

What are the 4 requirements for Natural Selection?

1) Natural Variation

2) Heritability

3) Differential Survival

4) Differential Reproduction

13

What is Natural Variation?

Individuals within the same species have variation

14

What is Heritability?

The only traits that can be inherited by offspring are ones that are genetic

15

What is Differential Survival?

Many offspring do not survive due to low resources

16

What is Differential Reproduction

All organisms can produce more offspring than the enviroment can support

17

What is the Malthus Principle

Every generation more offspring than the envroment can support

18

What was On the Origin of Species by Mean of Natural Selection by Charles Darwin about?

Proposed that all diversity of life is driven by Natural Selection & that all life on Earth is related to and evolved form a common ancestor

19

Is there a goal for natural selection?

no

20

Does natural selection create?

No, it only modifies & selects the best traits

21

List the 5 pieces of evidence for
evolution

1) Fossils

2) Biogeogrpahical

3) Anatomical

4) Similarities in Embryos

5) Biochemical (DNA)

22

What can you prove with fossils?

You can trace the evolutionary ancestry of an organism

23

Describe Biogeography in reference to fossils

Provides info on how different groups may have evolved due to the geographic distributions of animals and plants

24

Describe anatomical in reference to fossils

All vertebrea forelimbs contain the same sets of bones ( Homologous Structures )

25

Describe the similarties in embroys in reference to fossils

Embryos of different species look & develop similarily

26

Describe Biochemicals in reference to fossil s

All organisms have a degree of similarity in the DNA base structures

27

What is MIcroevolution?

Accumulation of small genetic changes within a single population

Microevolution takes place within a short period of time & below a species level

28

What is a population?

A group of organisms among the same species in the same geographic area

29

When do you know when a population has evolved?

When there is a change in the allele frequency

30

What is a species

A group of organisms that can interbreed, reproduce, and share a genetic heritance naturally