Macroevolution | Study Cards Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Macroevolution | Study Cards Deck (26)
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1

What is Macroevolution

Evolution at a larger scale across many populations

Deals with the origin of new species & lineges over a long period of time 

2

What is speciation?

The process for creating new species

3

What is a species concept?

It's what used to define a species

4

What are the 2 types of species concepts?

1) Morphological SP

2) Biological SP

5

What is a Morphological Species Concept

Characterizes a species based on body shape & structural features

6

What are the con of a Morphological Species Conept

May not help to distinguish 2 closely related species that are very similar & may not represent 1 or more species

7

What is a Biological Species Concept

When members of a different population  can mate & produce fertile offspring in a natural enviorment

8

What is the cons of a Biological Species concept

Not applicabale to asexual species & extinct species

9

What is a prezogtic isolation method?

Prevents reproduction attempts & makes it unlikely fertiliozation will be successful

10

List the 5 methods for prezogotic isolation

1) Ecological Isolation

2) Temporal Isolation

3) Behavioral Isolation

4) Mechanical Isolation

5) Gamete Isolation

11

Describe Ecological Isolation

Species that occur in the same area, but occupy different habitats & rarely interact w/ each other

12

Describe Temporal Isolation

Species living in the same area, but mate at different times of the day or year

13

Describe Behavioral Isolation

When signals of ano species are not recognized by another

14

Describe Mechianal Isolation

Different physical structures make mating impossible

15

Describe Gamete Isolation

When individuals of different species mate, but fertilization does not happen b/c of incompatability between the sperm and the egg

16

What is a postzygotic Isolation method?

Prevents hybrid offspring from developing/breeding

17

List the 3 methods for postzogotic isolation method

1) Hybrid Inviablility

2) Hybrid Sterility

3) Hybrid Breakdown

18

Describe hybrid inviability

Fusion of gametes, but fail to develop

19

Describe hybrid sterility

Hyrbids are sterile

20

Describe hybrid breakdown

When the second generation of hyrbids reduce survival or fertility

21

What are the 3 modes for speciation

1) Allopatric SP

2) Symatric Sp

3) Adaptive Sp

22

Describe Allopatric Speciation

One initial population is divided by a physical barrier and Natural Selection takes place on both sides creating two new species

23

Describe Symatric Speciation

A population develops into 2 or more reproductiviliy isolated groups w/out geographic isolation

24

Describe Adaptive Speciation

When many species evolve from a single common ancestor after they are exposed to different enviroments & resoures

25

What could cause Symatric Speciation

Disruptive Selection & Chromosoal Changes (In plants)

26

What could prompt Adaptive Speciation to happen

Promoted by new and varies niches & absence of competition (predators / other species)