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Flashcards in EXAM 01 Deck (75)
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design intent

statement that outlines an expected high‐level outcome of the design process.
It should adequately express the defining characteristics of a proposed building solution


why are design intents important

they set the tone for design efforts, allow all members of the design team to understand what is truly critical to success, provide a general direction for early design efforts, and put key or unusual design concerns on the table


design criteria

benchmarks against which success or failure in meeting design intent is measured.

ensure that all involved parties seriously address the technical and philosophical issues underlying a project’s design intent.


east and west facade shading

vertical shading

horizontal overhang is somewhat effective when the sun is at high positions in the sky, but is not effective at low‐altitude angles

eggcrate shading devices (a combination of overhangs and fins)


north facade shading

receive direct solar radiation in the summer in the early morning and near sunset, when the altitude of the sun is very low. For shading on the north side at these times, vertical fins are most effective


south facade shading

horizontal overhang during the summer


shading mask

sunpath chart (horizontal projection) that shows the shadow cast by a particular shading device


what is the greenhouse effect

greenhouse gasses trap heat below the Earth’s atmosphere in more or less the same way that glass traps heat from solar radiation in a greenhouse (or in a passive solar heating system). This trapping of heat increases temperatures and leads to climate change

greenhouse gas includes CO2 and methane

carbon‐Neutral Design: designs that tries to reduce carbon emissions



government‐mandated and government‐enforced documents (typically via the building and occupancy permit process) that stipulate minimum acceptable building practices
may be a legislatively adopted standard

Examples: Chicago Building Code; International Building Code



documents that present a set of minimum requirements for some aspect of building design; usually a consensus document developed by a professional organization under established procedures with opportunities for public review and input

Examples: ASHRAE Standard 90.1, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low‐ Rise Residential Buildings; ASTM E413‐87, Classification for Rating Sound Insulation


design validation

simple design validation methods (such as broad approximations, lookup
tables, or nomographs) requiring few decisions and little input data are typically used early in the design process.

the later stages of design see the introduction of more complex methods (such as computer simulations or multi-step hand calculations) requiring substantial and detailed input


building validation

most common
post‐occupancy evaluation (POE)
Published POEs have typically focused upon some specific (and often non-technical) aspect of building performance, such as way‐finding or productivity

building commissioning
an independent commissioning authority verifies that design decisions and related building assemblies, equipment, and systems can meet the owner’s project requirements (accomplished through review of design documents, observation of component installation, and detailed testing of equipment and systems under conditions expected to be encountered with building use.)

building case study
attempts to present the lessons learned from one case in a manner that can benefit other cases (future designs)


green design

incorporate concern for the health and well‐being of building occupants/users and respect for the larger global environment.

should maximize beneficial impacts on its direct beneficiaries while minimizing negative impacts on the site, local, regional, national, and global environments.

an attempt to maximize the positive effects of design while minimizing the negative ones—with respect to energy, water, and material resources.

rating systems include LEED


sustainable design

involves meeting the needs of today’s generation without detracting from the ability of future generations to meet their needs.

green design is a necessary constituent of sustainable design.


"let nature do the work" principle

expresses a preference for natural/ passive processes over mechanical/active processes

designers can usually find ways to use natural processes on site where they occur, in place of dependence upon services from remote/nonrenewable sources

smaller buildings on larger sites are particularly good candidates for this strategy.

Example: Daylighting


efficiency of electricity delivery is lost

55% of energy is lost during delivery


two most important factors in climate type

latitude and humidity


austin is a mix of how many climates? what are they?

ATX is a mix of 3 climates:
hot/arid - courtyard
temperate - wood, straw bale, and cob (many hybrid homes:using more than one construction type)


austin is a _________ climate


Stable summers and unstable winters
High humidity during the day and low at night


Energy consumption is dependent on __________

the performance of the building envelope


U.S. has four zones ___________

cool, temperate, hot-humid, and hot-arid


embodied energy

indicator of how much energy must be invested to mine/harvest/produce, fabricate, and transport a unit of building material



Recycling is a form of reuse, but it is often more labor-intensive and potentially expensive (requires additional energy to transport and reconvert items into something new)



Reuse keeps building materials out of the waste stream, preserves embodied energy that was used to make the original item, creates less air and water pollution than making something new or recycling, and generates new business and employment opportunities


main difference between recycling and reuse

Reuse lengthens the life of an item, while recycling re-processes an item into a new raw material


malcolm wells

American architects regarded as the “father of modern earth-sheltered architecture

Advocated environmentally responsible design; buildings are the problem and solution to climate change

***His values ignited shift from energy-efficient to green to sustainable design


ecological footprint

concept that plots the gross resource demand of a geographic area as a footprint on the planet


If the footprint is larger than the geographic boundaries of the entity in question...

then the area is stepping on someone else’s environmental toes


how does population growth impact ecological footprint

continuing worldwide population growth, however, makes the footprint balance tenuous
Per capita energy and water use in the US appears to be stable and/or decreasing


analyzing the site

Recognize resources that exist on site and decide how to best integrate them

Schematic design plans should include sun and wind conditions, noise sources, and water runoff patterns

Important to identify microclimates on the site (the places that have special characteristics differing from the regional climate)

Microclimates on a site are not limited to those visible on site → vertical and horizontal site analyses are needed

Conditions of privacy and accessibility, view, heat, light, air motion, sound, and water all change with height above or below the surface