Flashcards in EXAM 01 Deck (75)
statement that outlines an expected high‐level outcome of the design process.
It should adequately express the defining characteristics of a proposed building solution
why are design intents important
they set the tone for design efforts, allow all members of the design team to understand what is truly critical to success, provide a general direction for early design efforts, and put key or unusual design concerns on the table
benchmarks against which success or failure in meeting design intent is measured.
ensure that all involved parties seriously address the technical and philosophical issues underlying a project’s design intent.
east and west facade shading
horizontal overhang is somewhat effective when the sun is at high positions in the sky, but is not effective at low‐altitude angles
eggcrate shading devices (a combination of overhangs and fins)
north facade shading
receive direct solar radiation in the summer in the early morning and near sunset, when the altitude of the sun is very low. For shading on the north side at these times, vertical fins are most effective
south facade shading
horizontal overhang during the summer
sunpath chart (horizontal projection) that shows the shadow cast by a particular shading device
what is the greenhouse effect
greenhouse gasses trap heat below the Earth’s atmosphere in more or less the same way that glass traps heat from solar radiation in a greenhouse (or in a passive solar heating system). This trapping of heat increases temperatures and leads to climate change
greenhouse gas includes CO2 and methane
carbon‐Neutral Design: designs that tries to reduce carbon emissions
government‐mandated and government‐enforced documents (typically via the building and occupancy permit process) that stipulate minimum acceptable building practices
may be a legislatively adopted standard
Examples: Chicago Building Code; International Building Code
documents that present a set of minimum requirements for some aspect of building design; usually a consensus document developed by a professional organization under established procedures with opportunities for public review and input
Examples: ASHRAE Standard 90.1, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low‐ Rise Residential Buildings; ASTM E413‐87, Classification for Rating Sound Insulation
simple design validation methods (such as broad approximations, lookup
tables, or nomographs) requiring few decisions and little input data are typically used early in the design process.
the later stages of design see the introduction of more complex methods (such as computer simulations or multi-step hand calculations) requiring substantial and detailed input
post‐occupancy evaluation (POE)
Published POEs have typically focused upon some specific (and often non-technical) aspect of building performance, such as way‐finding or productivity
an independent commissioning authority verifies that design decisions and related building assemblies, equipment, and systems can meet the owner’s project requirements (accomplished through review of design documents, observation of component installation, and detailed testing of equipment and systems under conditions expected to be encountered with building use.)
building case study
attempts to present the lessons learned from one case in a manner that can benefit other cases (future designs)
incorporate concern for the health and well‐being of building occupants/users and respect for the larger global environment.
should maximize beneficial impacts on its direct beneficiaries while minimizing negative impacts on the site, local, regional, national, and global environments.
an attempt to maximize the positive effects of design while minimizing the negative ones—with respect to energy, water, and material resources.
rating systems include LEED
involves meeting the needs of today’s generation without detracting from the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
green design is a necessary constituent of sustainable design.
"let nature do the work" principle
expresses a preference for natural/ passive processes over mechanical/active processes
designers can usually find ways to use natural processes on site where they occur, in place of dependence upon services from remote/nonrenewable sources
smaller buildings on larger sites are particularly good candidates for this strategy.
efficiency of electricity delivery is lost
55% of energy is lost during delivery
two most important factors in climate type
latitude and humidity
austin is a mix of how many climates? what are they?
ATX is a mix of 3 climates:
hot/arid - courtyard
temperate - wood, straw bale, and cob (many hybrid homes:using more than one construction type)
austin is a _________ climate
Stable summers and unstable winters
High humidity during the day and low at night
Energy consumption is dependent on __________
the performance of the building envelope
U.S. has four zones ___________
cool, temperate, hot-humid, and hot-arid
indicator of how much energy must be invested to mine/harvest/produce, fabricate, and transport a unit of building material
Recycling is a form of reuse, but it is often more labor-intensive and potentially expensive (requires additional energy to transport and reconvert items into something new)
Reuse keeps building materials out of the waste stream, preserves embodied energy that was used to make the original item, creates less air and water pollution than making something new or recycling, and generates new business and employment opportunities
main difference between recycling and reuse
Reuse lengthens the life of an item, while recycling re-processes an item into a new raw material
American architects regarded as the “father of modern earth-sheltered architecture
Advocated environmentally responsible design; buildings are the problem and solution to climate change
***His values ignited shift from energy-efficient to green to sustainable design
concept that plots the gross resource demand of a geographic area as a footprint on the planet
If the footprint is larger than the geographic boundaries of the entity in question...
then the area is stepping on someone else’s environmental toes
how does population growth impact ecological footprint
continuing worldwide population growth, however, makes the footprint balance tenuous
Per capita energy and water use in the US appears to be stable and/or decreasing