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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (47):
1

____ is the study of microorganisms/microbes.

Microbiology

2

____ are living organisms that are usually too small to be seen with the naked eye.

Microorganisms/Microbes

3

6 main classes of microorganisms.

Viruses
Bacteria
Archaea
Fungi
Protozoa
Algae

4

____ are acellular, have no nucleus, no organelles, no cytoplasm, and are so small an electron microscope is needed to see them.

Viruses

5

____ are not considered to be living when they are not living within a host cell.

Viruses

6

Viruses are oblate intracellular parasites which means?

Obligate Intracellular Parasites can only multiply or or replicate inside of a living host cell.

7

____ are prokaryotes that do have DNA, they have a complex cell wall that contains peptidoglycan, and they can live where humans can't.

Bacteria

8

What is the difference between eubacteria & archaebacteria?

Eubacteria: Live everywhere, contain petidoglycan in cell wall
Archaebacteria: Live in extreme conditions, cell wall is chemically simple.

9

____ is a polymer made of sugars and amino acids that form the (mesh like) cell wall of bacteria.

Peptidoglycan

10

____ are microorganisms that are eukaryotic, can be unicellular&mulicellular, are photosynthetic, live in fresh or salt water, and contain cellulose in the cell walls. Usually Green in color.

Algae

11

____ are microorganisms that are eukaryotic, are unicellular, they move (are motile), shaped differently, and have a free or parasitic lifestyle.

Protozoa

12

___ are eukaryotes, can be uni & multicellular, contains chitin in the cell walls, absorb organic materials for nutrition, have no digestion system, and are responsible for breaking down waste by absorption.

Fungi

13

____ is a microbe that causes a disease.

Pathogen

14

____ are organisms that reside in or on the body without causing disease.

Normal Microbiota (Microflora)

15

The effect of ____ occurs when normal microflora attempt to reduce necessary nutrients that are needed in order for pathogens to grow.

Microbial Antagonism

16

____ is a pathogen that lives inside the host, but does not become harmful until the host's immune system fails.

Opportunistic pathogen

17

____ is a pathogen that causes disease in any susceptible host.

True Pathogen

18

____ releases endotoxins causing mild to sever endotoxic shock.

Lipid A

19

Endotoxic shock is found in a ____ cell wall

G negative

20

____ can live with/without a cell wall

L Forms

21

Archaea cell walls lack ____.

Peptidoglycan

22

____ is a unique type of dormant cell that can survive extreme conditions.

Endospores

23

____ have thick peptidoglycan, wall teoich acid, and lipoteoich acid.

Gram positive Cell Walls

24

____ have thin peptidoglycan, and outer membrane, Lipid A, Porins, O polysaccharides, and periplasmic space.

Gram negative Cell Walls

25

A ____ cell is bigger, has a membrane bound nucleus, performs mitosis, has a cytoskeleton, contains big ribosomes, and has membrane bound organelles. (plants animals, fungus, and protists)

Eukaryotic

26

A ____ cell is smaller, has an unbound nucleoid, circular DNA, performs binary fission, has a complex cell wall and has small ribosomes. ( all bacteria)

Prokaryotic

27

The ____ is an outer viscous covering of fibers extending from bacterium and is composed of polysaccharide or polypeptide subunits.

Glycocalyx

28

The ____ enables certain bacteria to resist phagocytic engulfment by white blood cells, enables some bacteria to stick to environmental surfaces, and protects the bacteria from dehydration.

Glycocalyx

29

____ are long thing helical appendages that are attached to bacteria to help make them toile.

Flagella

30

What are the 3 basic parts of the flagella?

Filament - rigid, helical tail like structure
Hook - the flexible coupling that connects the filament to the basal body
Basal Body- Rod and rings that anchor the flagellum to the bacteria and enables it to move

31

____ are bacteria without flagella.

Atrichous

32

_____ taxis is when the bacteria move toward an attractant.

Positive Taxis

33

____ taxis is when the bacteria moves away from the repellent.

Negative Taxis

34

____ is the moving/attraction of bacteria toward light.

Phototaxis

35

____ is the moving/attraction of bacteria toward chemicals.

Chemotaxis

36

____ are bacteria that have cell walls and then lose their ability to make them. ( Can live with/without a cell wall)

L forms

37

____ lack cell walls or the cell wall contains no peptidoglycan.

Archaea

38

____ do not have cell walls, but have a unique plasma membrane called sterols.

Mycoplasma

39

_____ are organized layered systems of bacteria attached to the surface.

Biofilms

40

___ account for 2/3 bacterial infections in humans.

Biolfims

41

Name 3 significant factors about biofilms.

1. They impede or inhibit antimicrobial drugs
2. They allow bacteria to retain nutrients
3. Frustrated phagocytosis impedes wound healing

42

What are the 4 major processes of living cells.

1. Growth
2. Reproduction
3. Responsiveness
4. Metabolism

43

___ is made up of 80% water, contains proteins carbohydrates, and lipids, and is known as the substance ensiled the plasma membrane.

Cytoplasm

44

____ are the sites of protein synthesis (translation).

Ribosomes

45

The ____ contains a single continuous circular double stranded piece of DNA, contains genetic info for structure and function, and has a chromosome attached to the plasma membrane.

Nucleoid

46

___ has a heavy metal resistance , as well as drug resistant genes.

Plasmids

47

____ are a unique type of dormant cell that has a type of "coat"

Endospores