Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (47):
____ is the study of microorganisms/microbes.
____ are living organisms that are usually too small to be seen with the naked eye.
6 main classes of microorganisms.
____ are acellular, have no nucleus, no organelles, no cytoplasm, and are so small an electron microscope is needed to see them.
____ are not considered to be living when they are not living within a host cell.
Viruses are oblate intracellular parasites which means?
Obligate Intracellular Parasites can only multiply or or replicate inside of a living host cell.
____ are prokaryotes that do have DNA, they have a complex cell wall that contains peptidoglycan, and they can live where humans can't.
What is the difference between eubacteria & archaebacteria?
Eubacteria: Live everywhere, contain petidoglycan in cell wall
Archaebacteria: Live in extreme conditions, cell wall is chemically simple.
____ is a polymer made of sugars and amino acids that form the (mesh like) cell wall of bacteria.
____ are microorganisms that are eukaryotic, can be unicellular&mulicellular, are photosynthetic, live in fresh or salt water, and contain cellulose in the cell walls. Usually Green in color.
____ are microorganisms that are eukaryotic, are unicellular, they move (are motile), shaped differently, and have a free or parasitic lifestyle.
___ are eukaryotes, can be uni & multicellular, contains chitin in the cell walls, absorb organic materials for nutrition, have no digestion system, and are responsible for breaking down waste by absorption.
____ is a microbe that causes a disease.
____ are organisms that reside in or on the body without causing disease.
Normal Microbiota (Microflora)
The effect of ____ occurs when normal microflora attempt to reduce necessary nutrients that are needed in order for pathogens to grow.
____ is a pathogen that lives inside the host, but does not become harmful until the host's immune system fails.
____ is a pathogen that causes disease in any susceptible host.
____ releases endotoxins causing mild to sever endotoxic shock.
Endotoxic shock is found in a ____ cell wall
____ can live with/without a cell wall
Archaea cell walls lack ____.
____ is a unique type of dormant cell that can survive extreme conditions.
____ have thick peptidoglycan, wall teoich acid, and lipoteoich acid.
Gram positive Cell Walls
____ have thin peptidoglycan, and outer membrane, Lipid A, Porins, O polysaccharides, and periplasmic space.
Gram negative Cell Walls
A ____ cell is bigger, has a membrane bound nucleus, performs mitosis, has a cytoskeleton, contains big ribosomes, and has membrane bound organelles. (plants animals, fungus, and protists)
A ____ cell is smaller, has an unbound nucleoid, circular DNA, performs binary fission, has a complex cell wall and has small ribosomes. ( all bacteria)
The ____ is an outer viscous covering of fibers extending from bacterium and is composed of polysaccharide or polypeptide subunits.
The ____ enables certain bacteria to resist phagocytic engulfment by white blood cells, enables some bacteria to stick to environmental surfaces, and protects the bacteria from dehydration.
____ are long thing helical appendages that are attached to bacteria to help make them toile.
What are the 3 basic parts of the flagella?
Filament - rigid, helical tail like structure
Hook - the flexible coupling that connects the filament to the basal body
Basal Body- Rod and rings that anchor the flagellum to the bacteria and enables it to move
____ are bacteria without flagella.
_____ taxis is when the bacteria move toward an attractant.
____ taxis is when the bacteria moves away from the repellent.
____ is the moving/attraction of bacteria toward light.
____ is the moving/attraction of bacteria toward chemicals.
____ are bacteria that have cell walls and then lose their ability to make them. ( Can live with/without a cell wall)
____ lack cell walls or the cell wall contains no peptidoglycan.
____ do not have cell walls, but have a unique plasma membrane called sterols.
_____ are organized layered systems of bacteria attached to the surface.
___ account for 2/3 bacterial infections in humans.
Name 3 significant factors about biofilms.
1. They impede or inhibit antimicrobial drugs
2. They allow bacteria to retain nutrients
3. Frustrated phagocytosis impedes wound healing
What are the 4 major processes of living cells.
___ is made up of 80% water, contains proteins carbohydrates, and lipids, and is known as the substance ensiled the plasma membrane.
____ are the sites of protein synthesis (translation).
The ____ contains a single continuous circular double stranded piece of DNA, contains genetic info for structure and function, and has a chromosome attached to the plasma membrane.
___ has a heavy metal resistance , as well as drug resistant genes.