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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (55):
1

What 2 things must the body have to function?

Energy (measured in Cals) and Nutrients

2

What is the difference between macro and micronutrients?

Macronutrients give you energy, micros don't

3

Which nutrients are macronutrients?

Carbohydrates, Proteins, fats/lipids...

4

Which nutrients are micronutrients?

Water, Vitamins/Minerals...

5

5 things about Carbohydrates

-used short-term energy/fuel for nervous system
-building block=glucose
-found in plant-based foods
-whole grains, fruits, vegetables=main sources
-use glycogen to store excess carbs for short term

6

5 things about Lipids

-used in long-term energy storage, insulation, shock absorbers, cell membranes, hormones…
-not all lipids are unhealthy
-limit: meat, eggs, vegetable oils
-emphasize: nuts, seeds, fish, olive oil
-excess macronutrients are stored as lipids in adipose cells

7

5 things about Proteins

-not preferred as an energy source
-provide raw materials for body, builds structures and regulates functions
-get from meat, eggs, dairy, tofu, legumes, grains, and vegetables
-amino acids=building block
-20 different amino acids, essential and non-essential

8

What is the EAR and who's needs does it meet?

Estimated Average Requirement, meets needs of 50% of the population

9

What is the RDA and who's needs does it meet?

Recommended Dietary Allowance, used for individual nutrient calculation

10

What is the best way to get complete amino acids?

Eat a variety of foods with complimentary amino acids and consume adequate calories

11

5 things about Water

-surrounds all cells to carry nutrients/waste products
-cushions joints and spinal cord
-lubricates mucus membranes
-provides environment for chemical reactions
-maintains body temperature

12

What are vitamins and what do they do?

Essential, non-caloric, organic molecules that aid in digestion, absorption, and metabolism

13

What are minerals and what do they do?

Naturally occurring chemical elements that form parts of bodily structures and help regulate blood pressure and heart rate

14

What are 4 dietary reference intakes?

-EAR (Estimated Average Requirement)
-RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance)
-AI (Adequate Intake)
-UL (Upper Intake Level)

15

How do dietary reference intakes help you?

Reduce you risk for chronic diseases and nutrient deficiency

16

When is an Adequate Intake Reference used?

When there is insufficient data to set an EAR or RDA

17

What is the UL?

Tolerable Upper Intake Level, not safe to take more than this level chronically

18

5 means of acquiring data Unscientifically

-Tenacity: Believing with no evidence
-Hearsay: Secondhand Info.
-Authority: relying on authority figures word
-Spirituality: confusing facts with morals
-Empiricism: knowledge from personal experience

19

Difference between Hypothesis and Theory

A hypothesis predicts a relationship between variables and must be testable, a theory is supported by data already and is the current best explanation for something

20

List the 8 steps of there scientific method

-State problem
-Propose hypothesis
-Design test
-Predict results
-gather data/conduct study
-tell whether results support hypothesis
-make conclusions
-integrate into a theory

21

What must experimental research have?

-An independent variable that is manipulated to test effects on a dependent variable
-A control group

22

Difference between investigative and clinical experiments

Clinical experiments involve study of humans

23

Difference between correlational and descriptive observational research

Correlational examines a relationship between variables while descriptive examines characteristics of a group that is relatively unknown

24

Main sources of scientific information

Peer-reviewed articles (primary and secondary) and magazines or journals

25

Anatomy of a Research article

Intro (Abstract)
Subjects
Materials/Methods
Results
Discussion

26

What is glucose converted into and what is it stored as

ATP
Glycogen

27

What is hunger?

The uneasy or painful sensation caused by a recurrent or involuntary lack of food. May result in malnutrition over time.

28

What is food security?

Access to sufficient food for an active and healthy lifestyle. Involves availability of nutritionally adequate food acquirable in a socially acceptable way

29

Who are the hungry?

-The Poor
-those in rural areas
-households headed by women
-households affected by chronic diseases
-children under age 5
-areas affected by droughts or war

30

Why are people hungry?

-Poor government policies
-Poverty
-Drought
-War
-Disease
-Overpopulation
-Poor child feeding

31

What are the 7 roles of proteins?

-Growth and maintenance of tissues
-Enzymes
-Hormones
-Antibodies
-Fluid and electrolyte balance
-Transportation
-Energy

32

What is digestion?

breaking down food using enzymes so the nutrients can be absorbed

33

What are lipids broken down into?

Triglycerides

34

What is malnutrition?

The deficiency or excess of a nutrient

35

What is the difference between 1st and 2nd degree malnutrition?

2nd degree malnutrition is called malabsorptive hunger, 1st degree involves micro or macronutrient deficiency or hunger

36

What is marasmus? When does it usually occur?

Disease of Starvation- Severe inadequacy of energy, protein and vitamins/minerals. Strikes in childhood

37

What are the 9 symptoms of marasmus?

-Wasting of muscles
-absence of subcutaneous fat
-loss of skin elasticity and moisture
-thin, dry hair
-impaired nutrient absorption
-potassium depletion from diarrhea
-impaired immune system
-low heart rate and blood pressure
-anemia

38

What are 9 symptoms specific to Kwashiorkor?

-Common in 1-3 year olds
-Protein deficient, with adequate calories
-edema in the belly and legs
-skin lesions
-subcutaneous fat preserved
-malabsorption leading to diarrhea
-enlarged liver
-distended abdomen
-respiratory infections

39

What are the chances of recovery from malnutrition?

20%-60%, but 95% in acute cases. Stunting in growth/height is normal though

40

Name 3 things about Vitamin A and its main food sources

-Aids in vision in dim light
-deficiency leads to night blindness
-forms epithelial tissues
Sources (Retinol) : Eggs, liver, milk
Secondary: (beta carotene) : broccoli, spinach, sweet potatoes, carrots, apricots, mangos

41

2 different Vitamin A deficiencies

Keratinization: mucus-secreting cells replaced by keratin producing cells
Xerophthalmia: hardening of cornea leading to blindness

42

Name the function of Iodine and main food sources

Used to synthesize thyroid gland hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and brain development
Sources: food from the ocean, food grown in coastal soil

43

What are 6 symptoms of iodine deficiency?

lethargy, feeling cold, poor learning, weight gain, goiters, cretinism

44

4 things about Iron

-found in red blood cells and muscle cells
-hemoglobin: delivers oxygen to cells (found in rbc's)
-myoglobin: holds oxygen for muscle cells
-iron is at the center of these proteins

45

7 symptoms of iron deficiency

-lack of energy, feeling cold, impaired learning, lack of concentration, anemia (abnormal rbc's), pica (craving strange foods)

46

How much iron do men/women need?

Men: 8mg/day
Women: 18mg/day and 30mg/day when pregnant

47

What is heme iron?

Iron found in blood

48

What percentage of household food production id done by women? What work is done by men?

Women: 65-80%. Also 100% cleaning/cooking/child care
Men: Tend large livestock and plough cash crops

49

How is population measured?

Births/Deaths and Immigration/Emigration changes over a specified period of time

50

What does TFR stand for? DT?

Total Fertility Rate
Doubling Time

51

What are animal populations limited by?

Carrying capacity, they live off of resources of the land and a population larger than carrying capacity will kill off the weakest

52

What is Malthusian Theory?

Any time an individual produces more than one reproducing offspring, they are contributing to exponential growth. (A.K.A. more than 2 kids/family)

53

What are the two ways to maintain a stable population?

High births offset by high deaths
Low births offset by low deaths

54

How do we calculate the population's impact on the planet?

I=PxAxT
p=population
a=affluence (wealth)
t=technology pollution influence

55

What are solutions to overpopulation?

Family planning clinics
Education of women
affordability/availability of healthcare
more even distribution of resources