Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (55):
What 2 things must the body have to function?
Energy (measured in Cals) and Nutrients
What is the difference between macro and micronutrients?
Macronutrients give you energy, micros don't
Which nutrients are macronutrients?
Carbohydrates, Proteins, fats/lipids...
Which nutrients are micronutrients?
5 things about Carbohydrates
-used short-term energy/fuel for nervous system
-found in plant-based foods
-whole grains, fruits, vegetables=main sources
-use glycogen to store excess carbs for short term
5 things about Lipids
-used in long-term energy storage, insulation, shock absorbers, cell membranes, hormones…
-not all lipids are unhealthy
-limit: meat, eggs, vegetable oils
-emphasize: nuts, seeds, fish, olive oil
-excess macronutrients are stored as lipids in adipose cells
5 things about Proteins
-not preferred as an energy source
-provide raw materials for body, builds structures and regulates functions
-get from meat, eggs, dairy, tofu, legumes, grains, and vegetables
-amino acids=building block
-20 different amino acids, essential and non-essential
What is the EAR and who's needs does it meet?
Estimated Average Requirement, meets needs of 50% of the population
What is the RDA and who's needs does it meet?
Recommended Dietary Allowance, used for individual nutrient calculation
What is the best way to get complete amino acids?
Eat a variety of foods with complimentary amino acids and consume adequate calories
5 things about Water
-surrounds all cells to carry nutrients/waste products
-cushions joints and spinal cord
-lubricates mucus membranes
-provides environment for chemical reactions
-maintains body temperature
What are vitamins and what do they do?
Essential, non-caloric, organic molecules that aid in digestion, absorption, and metabolism
What are minerals and what do they do?
Naturally occurring chemical elements that form parts of bodily structures and help regulate blood pressure and heart rate
What are 4 dietary reference intakes?
-EAR (Estimated Average Requirement)
-RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance)
-AI (Adequate Intake)
-UL (Upper Intake Level)
How do dietary reference intakes help you?
Reduce you risk for chronic diseases and nutrient deficiency
When is an Adequate Intake Reference used?
When there is insufficient data to set an EAR or RDA
What is the UL?
Tolerable Upper Intake Level, not safe to take more than this level chronically
5 means of acquiring data Unscientifically
-Tenacity: Believing with no evidence
-Hearsay: Secondhand Info.
-Authority: relying on authority figures word
-Spirituality: confusing facts with morals
-Empiricism: knowledge from personal experience
Difference between Hypothesis and Theory
A hypothesis predicts a relationship between variables and must be testable, a theory is supported by data already and is the current best explanation for something
List the 8 steps of there scientific method
-gather data/conduct study
-tell whether results support hypothesis
-integrate into a theory
What must experimental research have?
-An independent variable that is manipulated to test effects on a dependent variable
-A control group
Difference between investigative and clinical experiments
Clinical experiments involve study of humans
Difference between correlational and descriptive observational research
Correlational examines a relationship between variables while descriptive examines characteristics of a group that is relatively unknown
Main sources of scientific information
Peer-reviewed articles (primary and secondary) and magazines or journals
Anatomy of a Research article
What is glucose converted into and what is it stored as
What is hunger?
The uneasy or painful sensation caused by a recurrent or involuntary lack of food. May result in malnutrition over time.
What is food security?
Access to sufficient food for an active and healthy lifestyle. Involves availability of nutritionally adequate food acquirable in a socially acceptable way
Who are the hungry?
-those in rural areas
-households headed by women
-households affected by chronic diseases
-children under age 5
-areas affected by droughts or war
Why are people hungry?
-Poor government policies
-Poor child feeding
What are the 7 roles of proteins?
-Growth and maintenance of tissues
-Fluid and electrolyte balance
What is digestion?
breaking down food using enzymes so the nutrients can be absorbed
What are lipids broken down into?
What is malnutrition?
The deficiency or excess of a nutrient
What is the difference between 1st and 2nd degree malnutrition?
2nd degree malnutrition is called malabsorptive hunger, 1st degree involves micro or macronutrient deficiency or hunger
What is marasmus? When does it usually occur?
Disease of Starvation- Severe inadequacy of energy, protein and vitamins/minerals. Strikes in childhood
What are the 9 symptoms of marasmus?
-Wasting of muscles
-absence of subcutaneous fat
-loss of skin elasticity and moisture
-thin, dry hair
-impaired nutrient absorption
-potassium depletion from diarrhea
-impaired immune system
-low heart rate and blood pressure
What are 9 symptoms specific to Kwashiorkor?
-Common in 1-3 year olds
-Protein deficient, with adequate calories
-edema in the belly and legs
-subcutaneous fat preserved
-malabsorption leading to diarrhea
What are the chances of recovery from malnutrition?
20%-60%, but 95% in acute cases. Stunting in growth/height is normal though
Name 3 things about Vitamin A and its main food sources
-Aids in vision in dim light
-deficiency leads to night blindness
-forms epithelial tissues
Sources (Retinol) : Eggs, liver, milk
Secondary: (beta carotene) : broccoli, spinach, sweet potatoes, carrots, apricots, mangos
2 different Vitamin A deficiencies
Keratinization: mucus-secreting cells replaced by keratin producing cells
Xerophthalmia: hardening of cornea leading to blindness
Name the function of Iodine and main food sources
Used to synthesize thyroid gland hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and brain development
Sources: food from the ocean, food grown in coastal soil
What are 6 symptoms of iodine deficiency?
lethargy, feeling cold, poor learning, weight gain, goiters, cretinism
4 things about Iron
-found in red blood cells and muscle cells
-hemoglobin: delivers oxygen to cells (found in rbc's)
-myoglobin: holds oxygen for muscle cells
-iron is at the center of these proteins
7 symptoms of iron deficiency
-lack of energy, feeling cold, impaired learning, lack of concentration, anemia (abnormal rbc's), pica (craving strange foods)
How much iron do men/women need?
Women: 18mg/day and 30mg/day when pregnant
What is heme iron?
Iron found in blood
What percentage of household food production id done by women? What work is done by men?
Women: 65-80%. Also 100% cleaning/cooking/child care
Men: Tend large livestock and plough cash crops
How is population measured?
Births/Deaths and Immigration/Emigration changes over a specified period of time
What does TFR stand for? DT?
Total Fertility Rate
What are animal populations limited by?
Carrying capacity, they live off of resources of the land and a population larger than carrying capacity will kill off the weakest
What is Malthusian Theory?
Any time an individual produces more than one reproducing offspring, they are contributing to exponential growth. (A.K.A. more than 2 kids/family)
What are the two ways to maintain a stable population?
High births offset by high deaths
Low births offset by low deaths
How do we calculate the population's impact on the planet?
t=technology pollution influence