Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (55):
What is the leading cause of malnourishment in developing countries? What % of children does this effect in these countries?
Poverty: Unable to afford food even though there is a surplus. Effects 80% of malnourished kids
What 2 problems arise from lack of access to land?
-Unable to grow/gather adequate food
-Excluded from a source of power
What 4 problems arise from highly concentrated land ownership?
-Few people/corporations own most farm land
-High rents to tenant farmers
-Crops grown for export and land used to graze cattle for beef export
-Displacement from land and forced onto marginal soil
Colonial administrators declared that _______ land was their property...
List 7 forms of inequality that women deal with worldwide
-Unable to vote
-Unable to attend school
-Unable to hold paying jobs
-Unable to hold land or qualify for loans
-Can be forced into marriage
-Can be killed by her family if she is raped
-Can be killed by in-laws if her marriage dowry isn't large enough
When raising children, girls suffer from ____, ____, and ____ neglect compared to their brothers.
Physical, emotional, and intellectual
What % of household food production is done by women? What tasks do they do?
-Plant, weed, harvest, winnow and pound grains, dry food in the sun, tend poultry, selling cash crops at market
Women also do ___% of household work such as ___, ___, ___, ___, ___, and ___.
-Cooking, cleaning, laundry, childcare, collecting wood, collecting water
On average, women work about ___ hours/day.
On average, men work about ___ hours/day while they ___, ___, and ___.
-Tend large livestock, grow cash crops, plough and water crops
List the 4 goals aimed at restoring gender equality
-Promote gender based equity in access to productive resources
-Enhance women's participation in policy making
-Promote actions to reduce rural women's workload
-End laws that prohibit women from inheriting property
How is a population measured? (5 factors)
-% Natural Increase
What limits the population size of animal populations?
Carrying Capacity of the environment
Growth rate of the human population for most of history was stable at ____%year.
Most animals live off of _____ _____ _____
Sustained natural resources
What is Malthusian Theory?
Any time an individual produces more than one reproducing offspring, they are contributing to exponential growth.
What are the two ways to have a stable population? Which one occurs in nature?
-High births offset by high deaths (occurs in nature)
-Low births offset by low deaths
Our current growth rate is slowing down, but is still ____%, or ____million/year.
1.33% or 78 million/year
Current estimates are that population will stabilize at _____ in the year ____.
-9 billion in 2050
-We are already using resources unsustainably
List 5 factors that favor large family size
-Lack of Security
-High infant mortality
-Less educational and occupational opportunities for women
What 4 things is overpopulation causing globally?
-Unsustainable use of resources
-Change in composition of atmosphere
How do we calculate our impact on the planet?
Impact=Population x Affluence x Technological Pollution
What are 4 solutions to overpopulation?
-Family planning clinics
-Increased education of women
-Increase availability/affordability of healthcare
-More equal access to land, food, jobs
What causes socially-generated scarcity?
-Lack of access to land
-Poverty due to lack of education, racial/gender inequality
What factors indicate less food security in the future?
-Grain production per person decreasing
-Seafood catch per person decreasing
-Water pumped unsustainably
-Less land for food production
-Dietary/Agricultural changes lead to less efficient use of land
What were some past strategies of increasing food production?
-Irrigation of previously arid areas
-Plow more land/migrate to new areas
-Terracing hilly land
-New crops for new regions
Did past strategies for food production increase actually help long-term?
No, the environmental cost was too great and the rate of increase in crop yield could not be sustained.
What are 4 reasons for decline in ocean wildlife?
How many people lack access to adequate drinking water?
List 4 causes of water shortage
-Increased standard of living
-Inefficient use of water (waste)
-Pollution (less usable water)
What is the consequence of unsafe drinking water?
What 5 ways can we prevent water scarcity?
-Grow water-efficient crops
-Reward farmers who use water efficiently
-Eat lower on the food chain
-Do not buy bottled water
The study of the relationship between organisms and their environment.
A dynamic community that is made up of all living creatures and their total environment within a specified area.
A site where a plant or animal naturally lives or grows.
Define Ecological Niche:
A functional role of a given species within an ecosystem.
What is the difference between Agribusiness and Alternative/Sustainable Agriculture?
Agribusiness is practiced on a large scale by those that own vast amounts of land, and alternative agriculture is a small scale, individual approach that attempts to minimize fuel and chemical input.
List 7 unsustainable practices within Agribusiness
-Confined Animal Feeding
-High speed slaughterhouses
What are 4 types of synthetic pesticides?
Insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides
How are pesticides regulated?
EPA and FDA set limitations on the minimum and maximum residue levels a pesticide can produce to increase safety
What are 2 main concerns about pesticide usage?
-Knowledge of health hazards is limited to exposure to one pesticide at a time, not multiple
-Bioaccumulation is not taken into account
What are 4 disadvantages of pesticide use?
-Fieldworkers exposed to high levels
-Death of natural predators of insects
-Death of non-target species
-Development of pesticide resistance
What are 4 disadvantages of synthetic fertilizers?
-Overuse of fertilizer
-Increased dependence on fertilizers
-Water pollution causing death of species
-Increased atmospheric nitrogen
What are the 3 main costs of our global appetite?
-Low diversity threatens food security
-Decreased incentive to preserve local plant/animal species
-Greater agricultural inputs are needed for non-native species
What gave rise to monocultures?
The green revolution: When scientists attempted to increase crop yield by limiting diversity of crops grown
Why is corn favored in livestock grazing over grass?
It can be used to fatten animals for production and corn supports a large economy, grass doesn't.
List a few of the 5 main things a factory-farmed cow is fed
-synthetic estrogen (blended with corn)
List 5 health impacts of an unnatural diet
-Mad Cow disease
-Altered nutritional quality of meat
Why do animals make poor food-production machines?
-Very inefficient converters of plant calories into meat calories
-10 grams of vegetable protein is needed to generate 1 gram of meat protein
Why is land used poorly in raising livestock?
-Animal (meat) production uses 6-17 times more land than soy production
-Almost half the world's farmland is used as pasture for livestock
-37% of world's wheat goes towards wedding livestock
Why is meat production bad for the atmosphere?
-Uses 6-20 times more fossil fuels than plant production
What are 4 of the costs of making cheap food?
-Food borne illness
Why is food waste such a significant form of waste?
Because you are wasting all of the water, fossil fuels, land, greenhouse gas emissions, money, pesticides, fertilizers, and grains that went into making that meal when you throw it away.
What 4 factors give rise to food waste in America?
-Food left to rot in fields
-Stores and restaurants throw our unsold food
-Improper storage and distribution
-Consumers not eating what they purchase