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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (55):
1

What is the leading cause of malnourishment in developing countries? What % of children does this effect in these countries?

Poverty: Unable to afford food even though there is a surplus. Effects 80% of malnourished kids

2

What 2 problems arise from lack of access to land?

-Unable to grow/gather adequate food
-Excluded from a source of power

3

What 4 problems arise from highly concentrated land ownership?

-Few people/corporations own most farm land
-High rents to tenant farmers
-Crops grown for export and land used to graze cattle for beef export
-Displacement from land and forced onto marginal soil

4

Colonial administrators declared that _______ land was their property...

Uncultivated

5

List 7 forms of inequality that women deal with worldwide

-Unable to vote
-Unable to attend school
-Unable to hold paying jobs
-Unable to hold land or qualify for loans
-Can be forced into marriage
-Can be killed by her family if she is raped
-Can be killed by in-laws if her marriage dowry isn't large enough

6

When raising children, girls suffer from ____, ____, and ____ neglect compared to their brothers.

Physical, emotional, and intellectual

7

What % of household food production is done by women? What tasks do they do?

65-80%
-Plant, weed, harvest, winnow and pound grains, dry food in the sun, tend poultry, selling cash crops at market

8

Women also do ___% of household work such as ___, ___, ___, ___, ___, and ___.

100%
-Cooking, cleaning, laundry, childcare, collecting wood, collecting water

9

On average, women work about ___ hours/day.

15

10

On average, men work about ___ hours/day while they ___, ___, and ___.

6-8 hours
-Tend large livestock, grow cash crops, plough and water crops

11

List the 4 goals aimed at restoring gender equality

-Promote gender based equity in access to productive resources
-Enhance women's participation in policy making
-Promote actions to reduce rural women's workload
-End laws that prohibit women from inheriting property

12

How is a population measured? (5 factors)

-Births/Deaths
-Immigration/Emigration
-DT
-TFR
-% Natural Increase

13

What limits the population size of animal populations?

Carrying Capacity of the environment

14

Growth rate of the human population for most of history was stable at ____%year.

0.002%/year

15

Most animals live off of _____ _____ _____

Sustained natural resources

16

What is Malthusian Theory?

Any time an individual produces more than one reproducing offspring, they are contributing to exponential growth.

17

What are the two ways to have a stable population? Which one occurs in nature?

-High births offset by high deaths (occurs in nature)
-Low births offset by low deaths

18

Our current growth rate is slowing down, but is still ____%, or ____million/year.

1.33% or 78 million/year

19

Current estimates are that population will stabilize at _____ in the year ____.

-9 billion in 2050
-We are already using resources unsustainably

20

List 5 factors that favor large family size

-Community Power
-Rural Lifestyle
-Lack of Security
-High infant mortality
-Less educational and occupational opportunities for women

21

What 4 things is overpopulation causing globally?

-Unsustainable use of resources
-Species decline
-Water/Air pollution
-Change in composition of atmosphere

22

How do we calculate our impact on the planet?

I=PxAxT
Impact=Population x Affluence x Technological Pollution

23

What are 4 solutions to overpopulation?

-Family planning clinics
-Increased education of women
-Increase availability/affordability of healthcare
-More equal access to land, food, jobs

24

What causes socially-generated scarcity?

-Lack of access to land
-Poverty due to lack of education, racial/gender inequality

25

What factors indicate less food security in the future?

-Grain production per person decreasing
-Seafood catch per person decreasing
-Water pumped unsustainably
-Less land for food production
-Dietary/Agricultural changes lead to less efficient use of land

26

What were some past strategies of increasing food production?

-Irrigation of previously arid areas
-Plow more land/migrate to new areas
-Terracing hilly land
-New crops for new regions
-Synthetic fertilizers/pesticides

27

Did past strategies for food production increase actually help long-term?

No, the environmental cost was too great and the rate of increase in crop yield could not be sustained.

28

What are 4 reasons for decline in ocean wildlife?

-Overfishing
-Seafood farming
-Pollution
-Climate Change

29

How many people lack access to adequate drinking water?

1.1 billion

30

List 4 causes of water shortage

-Increased standard of living
-Inefficient use of water (waste)
-Pollution (less usable water)
-Dietary changes

31

What is the consequence of unsafe drinking water?

Water-borne diseases
-diarrhea
-stomach cancer
-typhoid
-dysentery
-Hepatitis A

32

What 5 ways can we prevent water scarcity?

-Grow water-efficient crops
-Reward farmers who use water efficiently
-Eat lower on the food chain
-Do not buy bottled water
-Recycle

33

Define Ecology:

The study of the relationship between organisms and their environment.

34

Define Ecosystem:

A dynamic community that is made up of all living creatures and their total environment within a specified area.

35

Define Habitat:

A site where a plant or animal naturally lives or grows.

36

Define Ecological Niche:

A functional role of a given species within an ecosystem.

37

What is the difference between Agribusiness and Alternative/Sustainable Agriculture?

Agribusiness is practiced on a large scale by those that own vast amounts of land, and alternative agriculture is a small scale, individual approach that attempts to minimize fuel and chemical input.

38

List 7 unsustainable practices within Agribusiness

-Synthetic Pesticides
-Synthetic Fertilizer
-Monocultures
-Energy Usage
-Confined Animal Feeding
-Unnatural Diets
-High speed slaughterhouses

39

What are 4 types of synthetic pesticides?

Insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides

40

How are pesticides regulated?

EPA and FDA set limitations on the minimum and maximum residue levels a pesticide can produce to increase safety

41

What are 2 main concerns about pesticide usage?

-Knowledge of health hazards is limited to exposure to one pesticide at a time, not multiple
-Bioaccumulation is not taken into account

42

What are 4 disadvantages of pesticide use?

-Fieldworkers exposed to high levels
-Death of natural predators of insects
-Death of non-target species
-Development of pesticide resistance

43

What are 4 disadvantages of synthetic fertilizers?

-Overuse of fertilizer
-Increased dependence on fertilizers
-Water pollution causing death of species
-Increased atmospheric nitrogen

44

What are the 3 main costs of our global appetite?

-Low diversity threatens food security
-Decreased incentive to preserve local plant/animal species
-Greater agricultural inputs are needed for non-native species

45

What gave rise to monocultures?

The green revolution: When scientists attempted to increase crop yield by limiting diversity of crops grown

46

Why is corn favored in livestock grazing over grass?

It can be used to fatten animals for production and corn supports a large economy, grass doesn't.

47

List a few of the 5 main things a factory-farmed cow is fed

-liquified vitamins
-antibiotics
-protein supplements
-liquified fat
-synthetic estrogen (blended with corn)

48

List 5 health impacts of an unnatural diet

-Bloating
-Antibiotic-resistant bacteria
-E Coli
-Mad Cow disease
-Altered nutritional quality of meat

49

Why do animals make poor food-production machines?

-Very inefficient converters of plant calories into meat calories
-10 grams of vegetable protein is needed to generate 1 gram of meat protein

50

Why is land used poorly in raising livestock?

-Animal (meat) production uses 6-17 times more land than soy production
-Almost half the world's farmland is used as pasture for livestock
-37% of world's wheat goes towards wedding livestock

51

Why is meat production bad for the atmosphere?

-Uses 6-20 times more fossil fuels than plant production

52

What are 4 of the costs of making cheap food?

-Food borne illness
-Soil Degradation
-Pollution
-Antibiotic-resistant bacteria

53

Why is food waste such a significant form of waste?

Because you are wasting all of the water, fossil fuels, land, greenhouse gas emissions, money, pesticides, fertilizers, and grains that went into making that meal when you throw it away.

54

What 4 factors give rise to food waste in America?

-Food left to rot in fields
-Stores and restaurants throw our unsold food
-Improper storage and distribution
-Consumers not eating what they purchase

55

What can we do to feed the world sustainably?

-Stabilize the population
-Stop wasting food
-Eat lower on the food chain
-Eat organic or locally-grown produce
-Buy animal products from small family farms