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Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (54):

What are 4 benefits of vegetarian diets?

-Lower in Fat
-Higher in Fiber
-Higher in Phytochemicals
(Which lower risk of cancer and heart disease)
-Higher in fruits/vegetables
(Lower risk of hypertension)


Vitamin B12 Function: (2)
Deficiency: (3)
Food Source: (5)

Function: DNA Synthesis and Nerve Cell Communication
Deficiency: Pernicious Anemia, muscle weakness, neurological disturbance
Food Source: (Animal Products ONLY) Eggs, Dairy, fortified grains, rice/almond/soy milk, supplements


Vitamin D Function: (3)
Deficiency: (2)
Food Source: (2)

Function: Involved in bone formation by regulating calcium absorption, also in metabolism and excretion
Deficiency: Soft, weak bones. Greater risk for cancer and chronic diseases
Food Sources: Fortified Milk, Soy Milk


Calcium Function: (4)
Deficiency: (1)
Food Source: (6)
What to avoid: (4)

Function: Strengthen Bones, Muscle Contraction, Nerve Transmission, Blood Pressure Regulation
Deficiency: Osteoporosis: Porous, brittle bones
Food Source: Milk, cheese, yogurt, dark green veggies, nuts and beans
What to avoid: Soda, Animal Protein, Salt, lack of exercise


What is iron and what is its function? Which type of iron is harder to absorb?

The oxygen-carrying component in red blood cells. It functions to oxygenate tissues. Non-heme iron (plant protein) is harder to absorb


List 7 sources of Iron

Whole grains, fortified cereal, raisins, winter squash, legumes, iron cookware, and blackstrap molasses


Function of Zinc: (4)
Deficiency: (2)
Food Sources: (5)

Function: Acts as co-enzyme for many reactions, DNA synthesis, cell repair, and growth and development
Deficiency: Loss of taste and appetite, poor immune response
Food Sources: Dairy, legumes, whole grains, nuts, seeds


What is a good tip for getting zinc in your diet?

Add lemon juice or vinegar to your dishes but don't take calcium supplements at the time you are having the meal


5 components of the optimal vegetarian diet:

-Nuts and seeds: antioxidants, calcium, zinc, monounsaturated fats
-Legumes: Protein, zinc, calcium, fiber
-Omega-3 fats: Canola/walnut oil, soy, flaxseed
-Calcium fortified OJ or soy/rice milk
-Green leafy veggies: collard, kale, mustard, turnip/beet greens for B/C vitamins and beta carotene


What is organic farming based off of? What is its philosophy?

-Based off of minimal use of off-farm inputs (synthetic fertilizers and pesticides)
-Philosophy is to work with natural processes to conserve resources, maintain biodiversity, minimize waste and environmental impact


6 Rules of USDA National Organic Program

-Annual inspections by registered certification agencies
-Animals must have organic diet
-Sick animals must be treated
-Most document all soil inputs
-Farmers must develop soil fertility and pest control plans
-Must have buffer zone between them and conventional farms


5 Non-Organic farming practices

-Use of antibiotics or growth hormones
-GMO's, irradiation, synthetic pesticides
-Petroleum-based fertilizers
-Animal feed containing manure or parts of slaughtered animals/urea
-Animal Confinement


How do organic farmers maintain soil fertility? (6)

-Green Manure
-Fish Slurry
-Blood meal
-Bone Meal
-Cover crops
-Crop Rotation


How do organic farmers control pests PHYSICALLY? (5)

-Crop rotation
-Sulfer and copper Compounds


How do organic farmers control pests BIOLOGICALLY? (2)

-Lady bugs, birds, bats, spiders
-Microbial Pesticides: Contain a microorganism as the active ingredient


Why does organic food cost more? (5)

-Not a mass-market item
-Shorter Shelf Life
-More labor intensive practices
-Methods used are not subsidized by taxpayers
-Consumers are paying full cost of growing food


3 ways organic growing is better

-Organic Pesticides are less harmful to mammals
-Risk of bio-accumulation is less
-Reduce your risk of exposure to synthetic pesticides


What is the main benefit of soil fertility in organic farming?

-Gives organic produce higher amounts of micronutrients like vitamin C, iron, and magnesium


How is organic farming better for the environment? (5)

-Fewer green house gas emissions
-Less fossil fuel use
-Decreased soil erosion
-Maintains native insects, birds
-Reduces contamination of groundwater


5 ways to reduce pesticide exposure

-Trim fat from meat
-Scrub produce and discard outer leaves
-Avoid waxed fruits
-Support farmer's markets
-Keep eating produce


Name the two keys to success for organic farming

-Absence of subsidies and incentives for non-sustainable agricultural practices
-Policies that support sustainable practices


What is the role of the USDA?

To promote conventional agriculture and weaken organic standards


Neither organic or conventional food production is sustainable, so how should the world eat sustainably?

Develop a system that mimics cycles found in nature and is designed around natural behaviors of animals (using photosynthesis instead of fossil fuels for energy)


4 things about Cattle

-Portable fences
-Graze intensively for a short period of time
-Spread and fertilize seed
-Stimulate new growth of diverse grassland


4 things about Chickens

-Portable coop follows after cattle
-Grass sheared so chickens graze easier
-Spread manure and eliminate parasites
-Cows give feed to them and they keep the cows healthy


4 things about Pigs
(3 in winter, 1 in spring)

-Cattle in barn
-Layers of wood chips, straw, and corn are added to manure
-Heat created, corn ferments
-Pigs root through compost for fermented corn, aerating it and making it sterile


How does organic livestock upkeep benefit humans?

Our bodies have developed to need nutrients from a natural food chain and these processes derive less fat and cholesterol


What is Life Cycle Assessment?

Quantification of the environmental impact of using a certain animal as a food source


What 5 things does Life Cycle Assessment take into account?

-Food production
-Waste Production
-Environmental Controls (G.G Emissions, Energy Use, Land requirements, etc.)


What are fortified blended foods?

Cereals made with legumes (soy, beans, lentils) and fortified with micronutrients


What is Biotechnology? Give examples (2)

Any technique that involves modifying living organisms or parts of them for specific use
Examples: Cross Breeding/Selective Breeding
Genetic Engineering


What is DNA?

Genetic code of DNA specifying the amino acid sequence of all proteins synthesized by an organism


What is a gene?

A sequence of proteins that codes for a specific trait


What are 3 advantages of genetic engineering?

Precision, speed, involving distantly related organisms


List 3 examples of genetic engineering

Insect-resistant plants
Herbicide tolerant plants
Golden Rice


What are 4 challenges to Biotechnology?

-Lack of capacity in some countries to regulate and assess risks/benefits
-High investment costs
-Potential negative impacts and need for public awareness
-Intellectual property management


What are 5 concerns of genetic engineering?

-Decrease in biodiversity
-Pesticide-resistant insects
-Increased use of herbicides
-Unintended harm to other organisms
-Food allergies


List the 5 processes involved in the carbon cycle

energy Metabolism
Limestone and Shell Formation


List the 4 processes involved in the nitrogen cycle

Protein Building


Describe the Greenhouse Gas Effect...(5 things)

-A layer of gasses act as a shield over Earth
-Solar radiation travels through the atmosphere to warm earth's surface
-Earth radiates infrared radiation back into the atmosphere
-Most is absorbed by greenhouse gasses and reflected to earth
-Increase in gasses causes the earth's temp to increase


How is the Ocean changing?

-Oceans are getting warmer, they absorb most of the heat that reaches the earth from the sun
-Oceans act as a carbon sink, absorbing 30% of carbon dioxide emissions
-Ocean salinity has decreased as arctic ice melts


Name 4 types of extreme weather increase

-Flooding from intense rainfalls
-Droughts and desertification
-Heat Waves


What are 4 ways habitats are being disrupted?

-Alteration os species in trees of rainforests
-Change of plaints in the plains
-Animals migrating away from the equator
-Plants growing at higher elevation, blooming earlier


How does agriculture contribute to gas emission?

-CO2, Burning fossil fuels to make pesticides and fertilizers
-CO2, Conversion of forests to make land for grazing and growing crops
-Methane Emissions from cattle and pig manure and urine
-NO2 emissions from manure and fertilizers


How will lower crop yield affect consumers?

-Food prices will rise
-Lessened calorie availability will increase childhood malnutrition by 20%


What is the IPCC? What do they aim to do?

InterGovernmental Panel on Climate Change, aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions


What are the costs (2) and benefits (1) of doing nothing to fight climate change?

-Disproportionate impact on the poor
-Huge economic and environmental impact
-Coal, oil, and gas industries continue to thrive


What 4 ways can governments help institute change?

-Regulate fuel efficiency standards
-Set high prices for fossil fuels and subsidies for efficiency
-Inform/Educate people on how to make changes
-Support research for new technology


What are the three types of International Aid?

-Bilateral Aid: One country aiding another
-Multi-lateral Aid: United Nations Programs
-Non-government organizations: Private organizations with no government affiliation


What are 4 goals of USAID?

-Enhance US military security
-Enhance US economic prosperity
-Promote democracy abroad
-Promote relief from poverty


What is USAID?

U.S. Agency for International Development


What are 2 examples of Non-government organizations that provide foreign aid?

-Doctors without Borders


What are 4 complications of foreign aid?

-Lack of infrastructure
-Shift away form eating local foods
-Cultural Food Differences


List 4 keys to success in foreign aid

-Improve basic health
-Invest in Education
-Improve electricity and clean water/sanitation
-Promote gender equality