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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (50):

Name one of the four reasons that the US is known as a high income nation.

highly industrialized economy, technologically advanced industrial, administrative and service occupations, and relatively high levels of national and per capita (per person) income


Name one of the five other nations (excluding the US) that is characterized as a high income nation.

Australia, New Zealand, Japan, the European nations (United Kingdom), and Canada


In 1998, the National Coalition for the Homeless indicated that on average, a person must earn an hourly wage of $8.89 to afford a two bedroom apartment.



Roughly how much per month does Gail and her roommate pay for rent?



How much start-up cost did Ehrenreich allow herself at the beginning of her project?



What was the amount of tip that the ten person table left?



What activities did the Saints use to occupy their time while in Big Town?

drinking heavily in taverns or nightclubs, driving drunkenly through the streets, and committing acts of vandalism and playing pranks


How many Saints were members of an athletic team?



How was Ron severely injured?

He was shot by the owner of the gas station he robbed.


Which group, the Saints or Roughnecks, frequently endangered themselves and others?



What three types of delinquency did the Roughnecks mainly engage?

theft, drinking and fighting


How many Roughnecks did not complete high school?



In the article, Downey indicated that for __ years, she exited the welfare office unnoticed.



Name one of the three companies in which Downey indicated that her child's father owned blue-chip stock.

Disney, AT&T, and Campbell's


How many times has Downey been married?

She has never been married.


What was Downey's occupation during the story?

a meat slicer


Caste System

Rank is heredity and permanent; determined by one’s family history and background (an ascribed status).
One’s social status is established for life, very rigid; often preserved through formal law and cultural practices that prevent free association and movement between classes.
Marriage between members of different categories is prohibited


Class and the Educational System



Class System

The social structural position groups hold relative to the economic, social, political, and cultural resources of society.



the systematic oppression of poor people and people who work for wages by those who have access to control of the necessary resources by which other people make their living.


Closed System of Social Mobility

a social system with very little opportunity to move from one class to another


Deamonte Driver

A lack of proper medical and dental insurance can be fatal. As was the case with 12 year old Deamonte Driver when his mother was unable to locate a dentist who would accept Medicaid. The 12 year old died after bacteria from an abscessed tooth spread to his brain. The 12 year old’s tooth could have been removed for $80.


American Girl Doll

Americans didn't like that they made a homeless girl doll because they didn't want their children to know about the homeless at a young age.


Estate System

Social hierarchy centered on the monopoly of power and ownership of land by elites



According to the Stewart B. Mckinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987, a homelessness person is defined as lacking “a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime resident or their primary residence is one of the following:
A temporary place for people about to be institutionalized;
Any place not meant for regular sleeping accommodation by humans; or
A supervised temporary shelter.


Horizontal System of Social Mobility

The occupational movement of individuals or groups with in a social group



The economic gain derived from wages, salaries, investments, income transfers (governmental aid), or dividends during a given period.


Lower Class/Under Class

Consist of 15% of population
Have an annual income of $15,000 - $25,000
Lower class makes up to $25,000; underclass makes up to $15,000
The under class usually works at least 27 weeks per year. They are often referred to as the “poorest of poor”.
Family income is below the poverty line
Most work two to three minimum wage jobs that don’t pay benefits
Occupations for lower class include: lowest paid manual retail, and service workers
Occupations for under class include: seasonal or migrant agricultural workers; part-time menial jobs, (may receive public assistance).


Lower-Middle Class

Comprises 40% of population
Have an annual income of $49,000-$170,000
Some have college degrees (worked their way through college; usually a state supported school)
Live in modest, well groomed homes/neighborhoods. However, many live in rental units
This group of individuals use to “play it safe” and lived comfortably, but now try to “keep up with the Joneses” and are overspent
Account for 40% of the rise in debt in America


Lower-Upper Class

Consists of 3-4% of the US Population
Referred to as the “working rich”; they obtain their wealth by working for it rather than inheriting it
Annual income of $185,000
Live in expensive neighborhoods
Own vacation homes
Children attend private schools; good colleges
High prestige careers include CEOs, governmental officials, college presidents


Open System of Social Mobility

a system with ample opportunities to move from one class to another



Poverty Level – the minimum income level that Americans should have to live on.
The official poverty line for a family of four in 2012 was $23,050. The official poverty line for a family of four in 2013 $23,550.
The official U.S. poverty rate is the highest among the major advanced industrial nations.



evaluate each other according to the kind of work we do, giving greater respect to those who do what we consider important work and less respect to others with more modest jobs.


Social Differentiation

The process by which different statues develop in any group, organization, or society.


Social Inequality

the existence of unequal opportunities and rewards for
different social positions or statuses within a group or society.


Social Mobility

The movement of individuals or groups from one social position to another within the hierarchal system of social class


Social Stratification

An ongoing process that refers to how individuals or groups are layered or ranked in society based on the number of valued resources they possess, their power, and their perceived social worth. It is a relatively fixed, hierarchical arrangement in society; a system of structured social inequality.


Socioeconomic Status

A ranking that combines income, occupational prestige, level of education, and neighborhood to assess social class


Structural Mobility

Large-scale changes that enable people to move up or down in the stratification system


Upper-Middle Class

Comprises 20% of population
Have an annual income between $170,000 to 300,000 (some can gross a $1 million annually).
Usually have advance college degrees (beyond a Bachelor's degree)
Live in comfortable elegant homes in expensive neighborhoods; may own a second home/vacation home
Often belong to country clubs
Active in local politics and community affairs


Upper-Upper Class

Represents less than 1% of the US population
Have incomes of $295,000, but usually much more ($2 million)
Have a net worth in the millions or billions
Household wealth is not these individual’s only resource
Membership is almost always ascribed (birth)
Wealth is primarily inherited
Referred to as “bluebloods”, “blue book”, or on the “Social Register”
The categories of Upper Uppers: Old Money, New Money, Ordinary Community Millionaires.


Vertical System of Social Mobility

The movement between different class statues, often called either upward mobility or downward mobility



The total value of all economic assets, including income, personal property, stocks, bonds, insurance, savings, value of investments, and income-producing property (real estate).
To calculate one’s net worth you would need to subtract the individual’s debt from their wealth.


Working Class

Comprises 20% of population
Have an annual income of $29,257-$49,543
Most vulnerable to layoffs
Jobs usually don’t offer medical benefits or pensions
Vulnerable to financial problems caused by unemployment or illness


Upper Class

Represents 5% of the population
Account for more than 50% of the US’s income and dominates Corporate America
Have a disproportional influence over the nation’s politics, education, & religion
Have a strong sense of solidarity
Attend Ivy League Colleges
Children attend private prep schools
Occupations include business owners, senior governmental officials, CEO’s


Upper-Upper Class Cont.

Live in expensive, exclusive neighborhoods, that have existed for a long time
Display a distinctive lifestyle
Conduct financial business at private exclusive banks
Children attend private school; go on to attend Ivy League Colleges majoring in Liberal Arts Based degrees
Often highly educated, cultured, and influential
Women often do volunteer work for charities
Few are able to join the ranks of the upper upper class


Upper-Middle Class Cont.

Own several automobiles
Has investments
2/3 of their children graduate from college
Have high prestige occupations such as engineers, accountants, business analyst, stock brokers, physicians, attorneys, college professors, white collar management, professional employees, medium-sized business owners, etc.


Lower-Middle Class Cont.

Typically members of their children’s PTA
Some drive SUVs
Some of their children play non-school related sports such as baseball and soccer
Less prestigious occupations such as bank employees, teachers, midlevel supervisors, sales people, local government office workers, nurses, legal secretary, medical secretary, highly blue collar jobs (electrically workers/carpentry), non retail sales; hair stylist, fire fighters, police


Working Class Cont.

Few members of this class has more than an high school education
Lower level of literacy than other classes
Have little or no wealth
½ of these individuals own their own home; usually in lower cost neighborhoods
1/3 of these individuals’ children attend college
Most of the occupations provide little or no personal satisfaction; individuals are closely supervised
Occupations include: truck drivers, machine operators, laborers, factory workers, daycare workers, cashiers, fast food workers, maids; clerical, retail sales


Lower Class/Under Class Cont.

½ of this population complete high school
¼ reach college
About 40% own their own home (in least desirable neighborhoods)
Receive only 3.6% of US income
The owe more in debt than they earn in income
Lower 5% of this population earn less than $7,500 annually and live in substandard housing
In 2005, 37 million people (12.6%) were classified as poor