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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (58):
1

Humanism

Solutions come not only from faith but also through self-determination. Man has the ultimate responsibility for his destiny.

2

Renaissance Humanists

Searched for a reevaluation of human nature by looking at the ancient classical texts

3

Christian Humanists

Searched for a reevaluation of human nature by examining the Christian texts

4

Sir Thomas More and his Utopia

In his Utopia, no one had any personal or private land. The economy is based on the amount of work one puts in.

• First English Chancellor under Henry III
• Beheaded as a traitor when he refused to sign the Oath of Supremacy which would have allowed Henry III to be the head of the Church of England

5

Martin Luther

The leader of the Protestant Reformation. He complains about:
• He complains about the practices of Indulgence and the power of the Clergy
• No need for confessions
• Everyone should have access to the Bible
• Believes in a personal connection to God meaning anyone can talk to God
• Thinks the Ecclesiastical Courts have no power and that people should be tried in civil court

6

Transubstantiation and Consubstantiation

Trans: the substance of wine and bread are the blood and body of Christ

Con: wine and bread are not the blood and body of Christ

7

Fredrick of Saxony

He was the Elector of Saxony and was a strong supporter of Martin Luther, Lutheranism, and the Reformation.

8

Erasmus

Prince of Humanism
•Wrote “In Praise of Folly” (1509)
•Criticizes the practices of the church and advocates reform of the church but is against outright rebellion

•Wants the Bible to be translated so man will know right from wrong

9

John Calvin

Believed in predestination: some are safe and some are not

10

German Peasants’ Revolt (1525)

•Thomas Muntzer misinterpreted Luther’s intent leading to the revolt of German Peasants.
•The peasants lost the revolt
•Luther does not want this revolt but does support the peasants

11

The Twelve Articles

•A list of 12 demands of the peasants
•An end to serfdom: A serf has a debt to the lord and is protected under law
•Access to freely fish in streams
•Free access to game, firewood and common land
•Modification of tenure, tax, and labor requirements
•The right of the community to choose its own pastor

12

Peace of Augsburg (1555)

Allows subjects to move into an area of Germany in which the ruler was the same religion as you were. Brings a period of peace in Germany.

13

Thirty Years’ War

Started when Ferdinand of Austria tried to declare Catholicism the state religion of Bohemia causing revolt.
• Although Ferdinand is removed from throne he calls on Catholic troops to fight
• Results:
Bohemia is devastated
The economy is ruined
20%-50% of the Holy Roman Empire population is dead from war and plague

14

Peace of Westphalia (1648)

• Territorial Agreements:
-The Holy Roman Empire is broken into 300+ states
-Switzerland and Dutch Netherlands become independent states
-France acquires Alsace
-Brandenburg and Bavaria: gained territory
• Religious Agreements:
-Confirmed the peace of Augsburg
-Recognized Calvinism, Lutheranism, and Catholicism as viable and tolerated religions

15

Henry of Navarre (Henry IV)

Huguenot but converted to Catholicism to end the Civil Wars

16

Edict of Nantes (1598)

Protected the Protestants and ensured that France was a Catholic state but tolerant of the Protestant Religion

17

Louis XIV

-The sun king
-He used the Palace of Versailles in order to invite nobles so they would lose power in their villages
-Waged many wars with little land gained draining the treasury

18

The War of Spanish Succession

-When Charles II of Spain died he left the throne to his heir Philip
-Philip was the husband of Louis XIV's niece so Louis made him his heir so that the Spanish and French thrones would be under one ruler
-This upset the balance of power in Europe leading to war

19

Peace of Utrecht (1713)

-Recognized Philip as Philip V of Spain
-Made it so the Spanish and French thrones could not be ruled by the same person
-The French had to relinquish the slave trade to England
-The French are not able to wage war

20

Absolutism: England vs. France

-In England, they have Parliament, established by the Magna Carta in 1215
-The power is never absolute because Parliament keeps the king in check
-England is not associated with the Catholic church at all

21

Henry VIII

- He had many wives: Catharine of Aragon (Mary), Anne Boleyn (Elizabeth), Jane Seymour (Edward), Catharine Howard, Catherine Parr

-He created the Church of England in 1535 after the Pope would not let him get a divorce from Catharine of Aragon

22

Oath of Supremecy

This would make Henry VIII the head of the Church of England

23

Act of Succession

This would make Elizabeth the heir before Mary

24

Elizabeth I

-The longest reigning monarch of England
-Was a moderate when it comes to religion
-One of her main rivals was her cousin Mary Queen of Scots

25

Mary Queen of Scots

-She was imprisoned for being a threat to the English throne since she was Catholic
-When she was charged with plotting against Elizabeth she was killed

26

Charles I

-He wanted to have control of everything
-Parliament refused to allow Charles to repress Protestants and to have more money
-Charles got angry and got the army to arrest the members of Parliament
-This started the English Civil War

27

The English Civil War

-The Royalists versus the Parliamentarians
-The Parliamentarians won the battle

28

Battle of Naseby

-Happened on June 14th, 1645
-King Charles lost to the Parliamentarians
-Initially Charles I dominated the battle through the first wave of soldiers but then the Parliamentarians gained control and won the battle

29

Cornwell

-Ruled during the Interregnum: 1653-1658
-A strict Protestant man
-Banned any Sunday activities
-He hates Catholicism and wants to wipe them out

30

Charles II

-Rules during the restoration period
-Is a Catholic and is not dedicated to the Protestant cause
-Wants all control

31

William of Orange and Mary

Were asked by the Parliament to come serve as king and queen of England since James II was king and had an heir.

32

Glorious Revolution (1688)

King James II fled to France upon William and Mary's arrival and no one was killed

33

Declaration of Rights (1689)

Parliament reestablished its rights and declared an end to the revolution

34

Act of Toleration (1701)

Any non-Anglican Protestants would be allowed to practice their religion in England but could not hold public office

35

Act of Settlement (1701)

No Catholic would ever be allowed to rule England

36

Scientific Revolution

1. The emergence and confirmation of a new world view
2. Development of a new science
3. New method of discovery: the scientific method

37

Copernicus

-Pope Gregory hired Copernicus to come up with a new calendar
-When Copernicus was studying the stars he came up with the heliocentric method

38

Kepler

He came up with the three laws of planetary motion:
1. Planets follow elliptical orbits
2. A planets momentum slows as it gets further from the Sun
3. The distance a planet is from the Sun is proportional to the time it takes to orbit

39

Galileo

-Wrote Starry Messenger
-Came up with the first astronomical telescope
-Verified the Copernican Theory and made it fact with discoveries of Jupiter's satellites, Saturn's rings and the infinite amount of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy
-The church was upset with his work since it went against their views and he was called to church court
-Excommunicated from the church

40

Francis Bacon

Used the empirical approach to discovery where the five senses were used

41

Rene Descartes

-Used deductive reasoning
-Something had to be 100% true in order to be proven
-"I think, therefore, I am"

42

Isaac Newton

-Studied light and refraction using prisms
-Speed of sound
-Came up with the law of gravity in Principia explaining the movement of the planets in the Copernican theory

43

The Enlightenment

-An intellectual movement where ideas about government, politics, and economics were discussed and applied
-The seed for revolution

44

John Locke

-Published "Two Treaties of Civil Government" which include the "Natural Rights of Man" and the "Social Contract"

45

The "Natural Rights of Man"

Life, Liberty, and Property

46

Social Contract

-The governed must give up some of their rights in order to gain protection and services from their government
- An agreement between the government and governed limiting the rights of each

47

Voltaire

-Wrote "Philosophical Letters and Letters on the English Nation"
-This compared England and France
-He liked England more since they were more tolerant of others

48

Cesare Breccaria

-Wrote "On Crime and Punishment", which stated that the punishment must fit the crime

49

Gotthold Lessing

-Writes "Nathan the Wise"
-Describes how all religions are the same since all religions have the same goal of respect

50

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

-Writes "The Social Contract"
-Attempts to balance individual freedom and government
-States that if an individual breaks the social contract they must be punished and if they refuse to comply, then you must force them to comply.

51

Mary Wollstonecraft

-Writes "The Vindication of the Rights of Woman"
-States that women obey men and that obedience without question is slavery. Women are slaves
-If all humans are capable of rational though, then women are capable of reason. Women are entitled to the same rights as men

52

Olympe de Gouges

-Writes "The Declaration of the Rights of Woman"
-Wrote a marriage contract based on egalitarianism
-The right for women to own property
-Argues for the abolishment of slavery
-Women's participation in public administration
-Equal and just treatment of women under the law

53

The Noble Class

-1-3% of the population
-In the government, military, or religion
-Have land=wealth=power

54

Entail

Prevented the sale of land to protect the nobility structure

55

Townspeople

-13% of the population
-Merchants, bankers, artisans, and professionals

56

Peasants

-85% of populations
-Farmers
-Serfdom is gone by the end of the 18th century in western Europe
-Rent is usually 1/3 of the crop yield

57

High Culture

-Culture of the upper class
-University, opera, theater, wine, fine food and clothing
-At the opera, most just gossiped and did not listen

58

Popular Culture

-For the lower and middle class
-Lower education, ragged clothing, gin and ale, taverns, and cheap movie theaters
-More community
-Carnival from the end of January through Lent