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Solutions come not only from faith but also through self-determination. Man has the ultimate responsibility for his destiny.


Renaissance Humanists

Searched for a reevaluation of human nature by looking at the ancient classical texts


Christian Humanists

Searched for a reevaluation of human nature by examining the Christian texts


Sir Thomas More and his Utopia

In his Utopia, no one had any personal or private land. The economy is based on the amount of work one puts in.

• First English Chancellor under Henry III
• Beheaded as a traitor when he refused to sign the Oath of Supremacy which would have allowed Henry III to be the head of the Church of England


Martin Luther

The leader of the Protestant Reformation. He complains about:
• He complains about the practices of Indulgence and the power of the Clergy
• No need for confessions
• Everyone should have access to the Bible
• Believes in a personal connection to God meaning anyone can talk to God
• Thinks the Ecclesiastical Courts have no power and that people should be tried in civil court


Transubstantiation and Consubstantiation

Trans: the substance of wine and bread are the blood and body of Christ

Con: wine and bread are not the blood and body of Christ


Fredrick of Saxony

He was the Elector of Saxony and was a strong supporter of Martin Luther, Lutheranism, and the Reformation.



Prince of Humanism
•Wrote “In Praise of Folly” (1509)
•Criticizes the practices of the church and advocates reform of the church but is against outright rebellion

•Wants the Bible to be translated so man will know right from wrong


John Calvin

Believed in predestination: some are safe and some are not


German Peasants’ Revolt (1525)

•Thomas Muntzer misinterpreted Luther’s intent leading to the revolt of German Peasants.
•The peasants lost the revolt
•Luther does not want this revolt but does support the peasants


The Twelve Articles

•A list of 12 demands of the peasants
•An end to serfdom: A serf has a debt to the lord and is protected under law
•Access to freely fish in streams
•Free access to game, firewood and common land
•Modification of tenure, tax, and labor requirements
•The right of the community to choose its own pastor


Peace of Augsburg (1555)

Allows subjects to move into an area of Germany in which the ruler was the same religion as you were. Brings a period of peace in Germany.


Thirty Years’ War

Started when Ferdinand of Austria tried to declare Catholicism the state religion of Bohemia causing revolt.
• Although Ferdinand is removed from throne he calls on Catholic troops to fight
• Results:
Bohemia is devastated
The economy is ruined
20%-50% of the Holy Roman Empire population is dead from war and plague


Peace of Westphalia (1648)

• Territorial Agreements:
-The Holy Roman Empire is broken into 300+ states
-Switzerland and Dutch Netherlands become independent states
-France acquires Alsace
-Brandenburg and Bavaria: gained territory
• Religious Agreements:
-Confirmed the peace of Augsburg
-Recognized Calvinism, Lutheranism, and Catholicism as viable and tolerated religions


Henry of Navarre (Henry IV)

Huguenot but converted to Catholicism to end the Civil Wars


Edict of Nantes (1598)

Protected the Protestants and ensured that France was a Catholic state but tolerant of the Protestant Religion


Louis XIV

-The sun king
-He used the Palace of Versailles in order to invite nobles so they would lose power in their villages
-Waged many wars with little land gained draining the treasury


The War of Spanish Succession

-When Charles II of Spain died he left the throne to his heir Philip
-Philip was the husband of Louis XIV's niece so Louis made him his heir so that the Spanish and French thrones would be under one ruler
-This upset the balance of power in Europe leading to war


Peace of Utrecht (1713)

-Recognized Philip as Philip V of Spain
-Made it so the Spanish and French thrones could not be ruled by the same person
-The French had to relinquish the slave trade to England
-The French are not able to wage war


Absolutism: England vs. France

-In England, they have Parliament, established by the Magna Carta in 1215
-The power is never absolute because Parliament keeps the king in check
-England is not associated with the Catholic church at all


Henry VIII

- He had many wives: Catharine of Aragon (Mary), Anne Boleyn (Elizabeth), Jane Seymour (Edward), Catharine Howard, Catherine Parr

-He created the Church of England in 1535 after the Pope would not let him get a divorce from Catharine of Aragon


Oath of Supremecy

This would make Henry VIII the head of the Church of England


Act of Succession

This would make Elizabeth the heir before Mary


Elizabeth I

-The longest reigning monarch of England
-Was a moderate when it comes to religion
-One of her main rivals was her cousin Mary Queen of Scots


Mary Queen of Scots

-She was imprisoned for being a threat to the English throne since she was Catholic
-When she was charged with plotting against Elizabeth she was killed


Charles I

-He wanted to have control of everything
-Parliament refused to allow Charles to repress Protestants and to have more money
-Charles got angry and got the army to arrest the members of Parliament
-This started the English Civil War


The English Civil War

-The Royalists versus the Parliamentarians
-The Parliamentarians won the battle


Battle of Naseby

-Happened on June 14th, 1645
-King Charles lost to the Parliamentarians
-Initially Charles I dominated the battle through the first wave of soldiers but then the Parliamentarians gained control and won the battle



-Ruled during the Interregnum: 1653-1658
-A strict Protestant man
-Banned any Sunday activities
-He hates Catholicism and wants to wipe them out


Charles II

-Rules during the restoration period
-Is a Catholic and is not dedicated to the Protestant cause
-Wants all control


William of Orange and Mary

Were asked by the Parliament to come serve as king and queen of England since James II was king and had an heir.


Glorious Revolution (1688)

King James II fled to France upon William and Mary's arrival and no one was killed


Declaration of Rights (1689)

Parliament reestablished its rights and declared an end to the revolution


Act of Toleration (1701)

Any non-Anglican Protestants would be allowed to practice their religion in England but could not hold public office


Act of Settlement (1701)

No Catholic would ever be allowed to rule England


Scientific Revolution

1. The emergence and confirmation of a new world view
2. Development of a new science
3. New method of discovery: the scientific method



-Pope Gregory hired Copernicus to come up with a new calendar
-When Copernicus was studying the stars he came up with the heliocentric method



He came up with the three laws of planetary motion:
1. Planets follow elliptical orbits
2. A planets momentum slows as it gets further from the Sun
3. The distance a planet is from the Sun is proportional to the time it takes to orbit



-Wrote Starry Messenger
-Came up with the first astronomical telescope
-Verified the Copernican Theory and made it fact with discoveries of Jupiter's satellites, Saturn's rings and the infinite amount of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy
-The church was upset with his work since it went against their views and he was called to church court
-Excommunicated from the church


Francis Bacon

Used the empirical approach to discovery where the five senses were used


Rene Descartes

-Used deductive reasoning
-Something had to be 100% true in order to be proven
-"I think, therefore, I am"


Isaac Newton

-Studied light and refraction using prisms
-Speed of sound
-Came up with the law of gravity in Principia explaining the movement of the planets in the Copernican theory


The Enlightenment

-An intellectual movement where ideas about government, politics, and economics were discussed and applied
-The seed for revolution


John Locke

-Published "Two Treaties of Civil Government" which include the "Natural Rights of Man" and the "Social Contract"


The "Natural Rights of Man"

Life, Liberty, and Property


Social Contract

-The governed must give up some of their rights in order to gain protection and services from their government
- An agreement between the government and governed limiting the rights of each



-Wrote "Philosophical Letters and Letters on the English Nation"
-This compared England and France
-He liked England more since they were more tolerant of others


Cesare Breccaria

-Wrote "On Crime and Punishment", which stated that the punishment must fit the crime


Gotthold Lessing

-Writes "Nathan the Wise"
-Describes how all religions are the same since all religions have the same goal of respect


Jean-Jacques Rousseau

-Writes "The Social Contract"
-Attempts to balance individual freedom and government
-States that if an individual breaks the social contract they must be punished and if they refuse to comply, then you must force them to comply.


Mary Wollstonecraft

-Writes "The Vindication of the Rights of Woman"
-States that women obey men and that obedience without question is slavery. Women are slaves
-If all humans are capable of rational though, then women are capable of reason. Women are entitled to the same rights as men


Olympe de Gouges

-Writes "The Declaration of the Rights of Woman"
-Wrote a marriage contract based on egalitarianism
-The right for women to own property
-Argues for the abolishment of slavery
-Women's participation in public administration
-Equal and just treatment of women under the law


The Noble Class

-1-3% of the population
-In the government, military, or religion
-Have land=wealth=power



Prevented the sale of land to protect the nobility structure



-13% of the population
-Merchants, bankers, artisans, and professionals



-85% of populations
-Serfdom is gone by the end of the 18th century in western Europe
-Rent is usually 1/3 of the crop yield


High Culture

-Culture of the upper class
-University, opera, theater, wine, fine food and clothing
-At the opera, most just gossiped and did not listen


Popular Culture

-For the lower and middle class
-Lower education, ragged clothing, gin and ale, taverns, and cheap movie theaters
-More community
-Carnival from the end of January through Lent