Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (59):
every American has an equal chance to succeed
The powers of the Feds are listed in the constitution and the rest should be left up to the states and the people
Power divided between national and state government. Each has its own independent authority and its own duties.
Madison's plan, embraced by larger states, strengthened the national gov relative to state govs
--bicameral - reps based on state pop
--citizens would vote for house of reps, who would vote for senators
--congress would elect pres
--national government would have powers in all cases where states were incompetent
New Jersey Plan
Put forward at constitutional convention by the small states, left gov authority with state govs
--congress would be unicameral - one vote in congress regardless of size
--congress would elect committee to serve as federal exec for one term
--Exec committee would select Supreme Court
--national gov could tax the states and would have excluded right to tax imports
Having two legislative houses or chambers -- like house and senate
Having a senile legislative branch
A gov in which citizens rule and directly make government decisions for themselves
--bicameral congress, house vote on pop, senate every state has two votes,
-- Feds control interstate commerce
--congress has ability to declare war
The organizations, norms, and rules that structure government and public action
The system established by the Constitution to elect the president; each state has a group of electors (equal in size to its members of house and senate);
The public in each state votes for electors who then vote for president;
All citizens enjoy the same privates, status, and rights before the laws
All citizens have the same political rights and opportunities
A situation in which there are only small differences in wealth among citizens
All individuals enjoy the same status in society
Checks and balances
The principle that each branch of government had the authority to block other branches, making it more difficult for any one branch or individual to exercise too much power. This usher makes passing by legislation far more difficult in the U.S. than in most other democracies.
Citizens rule indirectly and make government decisions through their elected representatives
Group of independent states or nations that yield some of their powers to a national gov, though the states retain a degree of sovereign authority.
Bill of rights
The first ten amendments to the constitution, listing the rights guaranteed to every citizen.
The Supreme Court decides case by case which rights apply to state governments.
A version of a cooperative federalism but with stronger emphasis on state and local government activity vs national gov
The transfer of authority from national government to state and local
Government authority shared by national and state powers, such as power to tax residents.
Full faith and credit clause
The constitution requirement that each state recognize and uphold laws passed by any other state.
National government set out explicitly in the constitution
Necessary and proper clause
The constitutional declaration that defines Congress's constitutional authority to exercise the "necessary and proper " powers to carry out its designated functions
National government powers implied by, but not specifically named in, the constitution
The constitutional declaration that the national governments authority prevails over any conflicting state or local governments claims.
Layer cake federalism; clear division of governing authority between national and state governments
The limits on government that allow people to freely exercise their rights
Clear and present danger
Court doctrine that permits restrictions of freedom of speech if officials believe that the speech will lead to prohibited action such as violence.
Brown vs Board of Education
Struck down segregated schools as unconstitutional. Fourteenth amendment.
The freedom to participate in the full life of the community --to vote, use public facilities, and exercise economic opportunity
Plessy vs Ferguson
An 1896 Supreme Court case that permitted segregation. Brutal lunching kept it in place.
A national polity governed as a single unit, with central government exercising all or most political authority
Libel and Slander
Written falsehoods; spoken falsehoods
Presidential declaration, with force of law, that issues instructions to the executive branch without any requirement for congressional action or approval.
Gets benefits but doesn't pay the cost.
New England merchants
Involved in ww commerce
Huge slave driven plantations
Loyal to the crown
Left when heat up
ubstance farmer - grow enough for family
Elites non elites
Urban and mid class
Punish people for rising against British interest - brings elites and non elites together
Articles of confederation
Sub national emphasis
Weak national gov
States elect reps to confederate congress
- 1 house
- 1 vote
- no exec
- states implement laws
Not much coop after war
Rules for constitutional convention
Close door proceedings - know groups fight against
Write new constitution- move away from perpetual Union
Federalists vs Anti federalist
Want strong gov vs not. Anti not as coordinated. Propaganda arises from both.
Rule by one
Rule by few
Men are not Angels. Precautions in place double security (power divided between state and government)
What will happen if we create strong gov? Will it become all powerful? No. Kept in check by states.
Centralized. Power is central to main gov. Sub national not autonomous.
Decentralized. States have power. Weak national gov.
Advantages of federalism
Strong national gov. Power kept in check by all.
Slow to get things done.
Citizen belongs to state and fed
Feds step into state matters
Feds start stringing stipulations to their help. Unfounded mandates. 20% rev comes from gov so state must comply.
Gibbons vs Ogden
Ogden had monopoly on water navigation.
Gibbons engaged in shipping from NY to NJ
O wants money for use of waterways
Interstate commerce says he can't charge.
State and gov come together - rampant poverty, depression
Education, health care - state matters need fed funding
Railroads need to cross through state.