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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (59):
1

Equal Opportunity

every American has an equal chance to succeed

2

10th Amendment

The powers of the Feds are listed in the constitution and the rest should be left up to the states and the people

3

Federalism

Power divided between national and state government. Each has its own independent authority and its own duties.

4

Virginia Plan

Madison's plan, embraced by larger states, strengthened the national gov relative to state govs

--bicameral - reps based on state pop
--citizens would vote for house of reps, who would vote for senators
--congress would elect pres
--national judiciary
--national government would have powers in all cases where states were incompetent

5

New Jersey Plan

Put forward at constitutional convention by the small states, left gov authority with state govs

--congress would be unicameral - one vote in congress regardless of size
--congress would elect committee to serve as federal exec for one term
--Exec committee would select Supreme Court
--national gov could tax the states and would have excluded right to tax imports

6

Bicameral

Having two legislative houses or chambers -- like house and senate

7

Unicameral

Having a senile legislative branch

8

Democracy

A gov in which citizens rule and directly make government decisions for themselves

9

Connecticut Compromise

--bicameral congress, house vote on pop, senate every state has two votes,
-- Feds control interstate commerce
--congress has ability to declare war

10

Institutions

The organizations, norms, and rules that structure government and public action

11

Electoral College

The system established by the Constitution to elect the president; each state has a group of electors (equal in size to its members of house and senate);
The public in each state votes for electors who then vote for president;

12

Equality

All citizens enjoy the same privates, status, and rights before the laws

13

Political equality

All citizens have the same political rights and opportunities

14

Economic equality

A situation in which there are only small differences in wealth among citizens

15

Social equality

All individuals enjoy the same status in society

16

Checks and balances

The principle that each branch of government had the authority to block other branches, making it more difficult for any one branch or individual to exercise too much power. This usher makes passing by legislation far more difficult in the U.S. than in most other democracies.

17

Republic

Citizens rule indirectly and make government decisions through their elected representatives

18

Confederation

Group of independent states or nations that yield some of their powers to a national gov, though the states retain a degree of sovereign authority.

19

Bill of rights

The first ten amendments to the constitution, listing the rights guaranteed to every citizen.

20

Selective Incorporation

The Supreme Court decides case by case which rights apply to state governments.

21

New Federalism

A version of a cooperative federalism but with stronger emphasis on state and local government activity vs national gov

22

Devolution

The transfer of authority from national government to state and local

23

Concurrent Powers

Government authority shared by national and state powers, such as power to tax residents.

24

Full faith and credit clause

The constitution requirement that each state recognize and uphold laws passed by any other state.

25

Granted powers

National government set out explicitly in the constitution

26

Necessary and proper clause

The constitutional declaration that defines Congress's constitutional authority to exercise the "necessary and proper " powers to carry out its designated functions

27

Inherent Powers

National government powers implied by, but not specifically named in, the constitution

28

Supremacy clause

The constitutional declaration that the national governments authority prevails over any conflicting state or local governments claims.

29

Dual federalism

Layer cake federalism; clear division of governing authority between national and state governments

30

Civil liberties

The limits on government that allow people to freely exercise their rights

31

Clear and present danger

Court doctrine that permits restrictions of freedom of speech if officials believe that the speech will lead to prohibited action such as violence.

32

Brown vs Board of Education

Struck down segregated schools as unconstitutional. Fourteenth amendment.

33

Civil rights

The freedom to participate in the full life of the community --to vote, use public facilities, and exercise economic opportunity

34

Plessy vs Ferguson

An 1896 Supreme Court case that permitted segregation. Brutal lunching kept it in place.

35

Unitary Government

A national polity governed as a single unit, with central government exercising all or most political authority

36

Libel and Slander

Written falsehoods; spoken falsehoods

37

Executive order

Presidential declaration, with force of law, that issues instructions to the executive branch without any requirement for congressional action or approval.

38

Free-rider

Gets benefits but doesn't pay the cost.

39

New England merchants

Involved in ww commerce

40

Southern planters

Huge slave driven plantations

41

Royalist

Loyal to the crown
Left when heat up

42

Small farmers

Small farms
ubstance farmer - grow enough for family

43

Elites non elites

Elites:
Merchants
Planters
Royalists

Non elites:
Small farmers
Urban and mid class

44

Intolerable acts

Punish people for rising against British interest - brings elites and non elites together

45

Articles of confederation

Perpetual Union
Sub national emphasis
Decentralized
Weak national gov
States elect reps to confederate congress
- 1 house
- 1 vote
- no exec
- states implement laws

Not much coop after war

46

Rules for constitutional convention

Close door proceedings - know groups fight against
Write new constitution- move away from perpetual Union

47

Federalists vs Anti federalist

Want strong gov vs not. Anti not as coordinated. Propaganda arises from both.

48

Autocracy

Individual force
Rule by one
Monarchy

49

Oligarchy

Group force
Rule by few
Aristocracy

50

Federalist #51

Men are not Angels. Precautions in place double security (power divided between state and government)

51

Federalist #46

What will happen if we create strong gov? Will it become all powerful? No. Kept in check by states.

52

Unitary

Centralized. Power is central to main gov. Sub national not autonomous.

53

Confederacy

Decentralized. States have power. Weak national gov.

54

Advantages of federalism
Disadvantages

Strong national gov. Power kept in check by all.

Slow to get things done.

55

Dual citizenship

Citizen belongs to state and fed

56

Centralized federalism

1964-1980
Creative federalism
Feds step into state matters
Feds start stringing stipulations to their help. Unfounded mandates. 20% rev comes from gov so state must comply.

57

Gibbons vs Ogden

Ogden had monopoly on water navigation.
Gibbons engaged in shipping from NY to NJ
O wants money for use of waterways
Interstate commerce says he can't charge.

58

Cooperative federalism

1933-1964
State and gov come together - rampant poverty, depression
Education, health care - state matters need fed funding
Railroads need to cross through state.

59

Barron vs Baltimore

Partners: fed and states - distinct separation
Dual fed
Barron owns wharf - state road work destroys it - says state owes money(eminent domain)
Fed protections cannot protect you from state