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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (49):
1

Filibuster

Rule in Senate allows any senator to hold the floor indefinitely and thereby delay a vote on a bill to which he objects. Ended only when sixty senators vote for closure.

2

Cloture or cloture vote

Senates only approved method for halting a filibuster or lifting legislative hold. 60 senators (three fifths)

3

Conference committee

Temporary collection of house and senate members that work out compromise for legislation that passed both chambers in different forms.

4

Reapportionment

Reorganization for house districts, process that follows the results of a census taken every ten years. Redraw lines to ensure enough reps are selected.

5

Civil servants

Members of the permanent executive branch bureaucracy who are employed on the basis of competitive exams and keep their positions regardless of presidential administration.

6

Inherent powers

Powers assumed by president often during crisis. On the constitutional phrase "the executive power shall be vested in the president"

Cannot be forced to divulge convos with advisors- needs secrecy

7

Expressed powers

Powers the constitution explicitly grants to the president.

Military- commander in chief
Judicial- grant reprieves
Diplomatic- nego treaties
Executive- nominate a cabinet (take care clause)
Legislative- veto, set agenda of congress, necessary and expedient (recommend things to congress)

8

Delegated powers

Powers that congress passes on to the president.

Examples:
1821 budget and accounting act - requires pres to propose budget to congress

9

Bureaucratic model

Hierarchy
Division of labor - divide labor to group or individual
Fixed routines - well defined rules
Equal rules - for all
Technical qualifications - expertise more than pop vote

10

Pendleton civil service act

Law that shifted gov toward a merit based public service. (Exams for qualification)

11

Spoils system

A system which government jobs are given out as political favors.

12

Street level bureaucrats

Public officials who deal directly with the public.

13

Appellate courts

The system of federal justices, organized into district courts and circuit courts who hears appeals from lower courts, culminating in the Supreme Court.

14

Civil law

Cases that involve disputes between two parties.

15

Criminal law

Cases in which someone is charged with breaking the law.

16

Common law

System of law developed by judges in deciding cases over the centuries.

17

Judicial review

The court authority to strike down acts that violate the constitution and to interpret what the constitution means.

18

Circuit courts

The second stage of federal courts which can review the trial record of cases decided in district court to ensure they were settled properly.

19

District courts

The first level of federal courts which actually try the cases. Each decision is based not on a statue but on previous judicial decisions.

20

Veto

Constitutional procedure by which a president can prevent enactment of legislation passed by congress.

21

Plessy vs Ferguson

Courts allowed segregation.
Judicial review helped remove this from law.

22

Marbury vs Madison

Permitted judicial review.
Adams
Marshall
Marbury

Jefferson
Madison

23

Electoral college

System to elect president. Ea state has group of electors equal to congressional delegation in house and senate and Es state votes for electors.

24

Independent executive agencies

have specific assignments

Social Security admin
EPA
NASA
CIA

25

President pro tempore

Majority party senator with the longest senate service.

26

Iron triangle

Cozy triangle relationship in one issue area between interest group lobbyists, congressional staffers, and executive branch agencies.

27

Legislative process

Starts in one chamber
Sits on 90% of bills
Goes through process
Goes to other chamber
90% die
Committee to agree on changes
Sent to president

28

22nd amendment

Sets a term limit for election and time of president.

29

President of the senate

Vice President. Tie breaking votes. Less power than speaker of the house.

30

Presidential powers

Military- commander in chief
Judicial - grant reprieves
Diplomatic- begin treaties
Executive - nominate a cabinet
Legislative - veto, agenda of congress, necessary and expedient , recommend things to congress

31

Senate term

6 years

32

Congress term

2 years

33

Head of government

Presidential: Head of gov and head of state are one

Parliamentary: separate

34

James Barber Typology

Active or passive

Positive or negative

Active Positive is what we want

35

Presidential system

Legislative and executive power are separated

Head of gov head of state are unified

36

Parliamentary system

Legislative and executive are unified

Head of gov and head of state are separated.

37

Original jurisdiction

Certain controversies go straight to Supreme Court. Article 3: "in all cases affecting ambassadors, Supreme Court shall have jurisdiction."

38

Trustee

Members of congress are trusted to make right decisions

39

Delegate

Follow the wishes of their constituents - puppet

Assumed people have unified voice.

40

Federalist 78

Makes claim judicial branch will be least dangerous branch because no ability to enforce.

Pres has sword, congress has purse, courts have power to judge

41

Representation

Represent the people's will.
Constituency service - electoral gold
Legislation - risky
Allocation - bring home bacon, pork: bridge, research project, jobs

42

Supreme Court enforcement power

Ask executive branch nicely.

43

Congress/chamber size

435 house
100 senators

44

Party control of congress

188 demo 247 rep house
60% rule rep rule here senate

45

Congressional power

To create legislature and declare war. Congress power on increase since 19th century.

46

First/Chief Legislator

President

Give info and recommendations to congress. Responsible for vetoing and signing legislation written by congress.

47

Modern Presidency

Expanded presidency:
Brown low committee said office not big enough - expand staff
FDR - fireside chats, entitlement programs

48

Majority Leader

Party leader in a given party in senate.
Kevin McCarthy

49

Growth of bureaucracies

Social complexity - society more complex, more complex bureaucracy
Political advantage - easier for politics to get things done
Bureaucratic expansionism - careers for the guys, they want to stick around
Incrementalism - gov doesn't sit still, stuff must be done