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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (109):
1

Solar System was created ___ Bn years A.B.B

12

2

Solar System is ___ Bn years old

4-5

3

Terrestrial Planets

Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars

4

Gas Giants

Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

5

Collision Hypothesis (Buffon)

Sun starts w/ no planets. Planets formed from star-star collision

6

Nebular Hypothesis (Kant)

Contraction of gas in nebula --> solids

7

Nebular Hypothesis (Maxwell Camp; Jeans)

Condensed dust particles (but gravity not strong enough)

8

Collisional Hypothesis (Chamberlain & Moulton)

Near mass of other star ripped matter out of sun

9

Modern opinion on planet formation

Formed from rings of matter around sun

10

Heavy elements came from ______

Supernovas

11

Temperature gradient

Gradient in gas cloud around sun --> pushed light elements out

12

Jupiter formed at position where ___________

S.S. cool enough for gases to condense

13

Planets formed by "_____"

accretion

14

Angular momentum of S.S.

In planets

15

Chondrites

Type of meteorite with chondrules, formed by accretion

16

Earth is not spherical, it is a "___"

Geoid

17

Types of heating of planetary bodies

1. Impact heating
2. Compression heating
3. Radioactive heating from decay

18

The "Iron Catastrophe"

Iron moves to core --> friction --> more heat

19

The "General Model" of Earth formation

1. Accretion of heavy core material
2. Earth melts
3. Volatiles added to crust from meteors

20

Creator of "Continental Drift"

Alfred Wegener

21

Continental Drift

Continents all came from supercontinent
- Backed by evidence (fossils)

22

Wegener's Tests (T/F): Shapes of conts fit together

T

23

Wegener's Tests (T/F): Fossil record

T

24

Wegener's Tests (T/F): Earthquakes

F

25

Wegener's Tests (T/F): Rock types

T

26

Wegener's Tests (T/F): Polarity of earth

F

27

Wegener's Tests (T/F): Ancient glaciers

T

28

Wegener's Tests (T/F): Past mountain belts

T

29

Wegener's Tests (T/F): Star mapping

F

30

Wegener's Tests (T/F): Drift rate

T

31

Mantle Convection (Otto Ampferer)

Mantle is hot, soft. Moves over millions of years in cycles

32

Harry Hess

Navy captain during WWII conducted "bathymetry"

33

Bathymetry

Taking magnetic measurements of ocean floor

34

Bathymetry proved:

Polar shifts

35

Divergent boundary

Creates new ocean floor

36

Convergent boundary

Overlapping of ocean floor

37

Transform boundary

Plates slide past each other

38

Curie Temperature

Temperature for which the magnetic field is "frozen" - becomes permanent for that rock

39

______/______ measure of latitude

Inclination/Declination of compass needle

40

Seafloor Spreading

Ridges result from mantle convection (Hess)

41

Oceans are made of _______

basalt

42

Continents are made of _______

granite

43

Lithosphere

"Stiff plates" (includes upper mantle)

44

Athenosphere

Soft convecting mantle

45

Median Valley

Valley formed by faults at ridge

46

Convergent features:

Trench, mountain range, volcano (trench-arc systems)

47

Three types of plate boundaries

Convergent, divergent, transform

48

Transform faults

- Where ridges are offset

49

_____ earthquakes at transform boundaries

Shallow

50

_____ earthquakes at convergent boundaries

Both shallow and deep

51

_____ earthquakes at divergent boundaries

Shallow

52

Ocean vs continental plate

Ocean subducts

53

Ocean vs ocean

Older crust subducts

54

Continent vs continent

Thickening: Mountain range

55

Hot Spot

Hot position fixed to mantle (crust moves over)

56

Examples of Hot Spots

Hawaii, Galapagos

57

Triple junction

Meeting of three plates at corners of plates

58

Transform fault found in ___

ocean

59

Strike/strip fault found in ___

continent

60

Mineral

Solid naturally occurring substance

61

Crystal

Can be man made

62

Diagnostic properties of crystals

- Hardness
- Density
- Cleavage
- Streak
- Luster

63

Silicates make up ___% of mantle

100

64

Silicates make up ___% of crust

90

65

Carbonates make up ___% of crust

10

66

Inventor of periodic table

Mendeleev

67

Most common silicate

Olivine

68

Polymer

Large molecule made of many sub units

69

Sheet silicates

tetrahedra-octahedra-tetrahedra sandwich

70

______ are easy to peel

Sheet silicates

71

Framework silicates

tetrahedra linked at four corners

72

Example of framework silicates

Quartz, Feldspar

73

Example of sheet silicates

Muscovite

74

Igneous rock

Once molten rock

75

Extrusive igneous rock

Fast cooling rocks from volc

76

Intrusive igneous rock

Slow cooling rocks at depth, produces larger crystals

77

Fine grained metamorphic rocks formed at ___ T

Lower

78

Coarse grained metamorphic rocks formed at ___ T

Higher

79

Shield volcanoes form mostly ____

over hotspots

80

Shield volcanoes are mostly made of ____

basalt

81

Pahoehoe Lava

Smooth, curvy, ropey

82

Aa Lava

Pointy, sharp

83

Cinder cone volcanoes mostly made of ___

High silicone magmas

84

____ volcanoes are smaller

Cinder cone

85

____ volc are the most dangerous

Stratovolcanoes

86

Stratovolcanoes made mostly of

Framework silicates (traps gas --> explosive)

87

Examples of strat volcs

Mount St Helens, Krakatoa

88

Kimberlites are a source of ____

diamonds

89

____ volcanoes are the most explosive

Kimberlite

90

Glass is formed by _____

Quick cooling

91

Gabbro

Intruded basalt

92

Pillow basalt

Submarine basalt eruptions

93

Dike

Vertical

94

Sill

Horizontal

95

Batholith

Igneous rock that never surfaced

96

Andesites

Formed by subduction, likely with H2O

97

Peridodite

Found in upper mantle

98

Quartz elemental comp

SiO2

99

Olivine elemental comp

Mg/FeSiO4

100

Pyroxine Cleavage Angle(s)

90

101

Pyroxine Structure

Single chain

102

Amphibole Structure

Double chain

103

Amphibole Cleavage Angle(s)

120, 60

104

Peridodite made of

Olivine & Pyroxine

105

Peridodite (intrusive/extrusive)

intrusive

106

Andesite (intrusive/extrusive)

extrusive

107

Granite minerals

Quartz, Feldspar, Amphibole

108

Andesite minerals

Plagioclase & Pyroxene

109

Basalt minerals

Pyroxene, plagioclase, olivine