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1

motor skills / actions

Motor skills require body, head, and/or limb movement to achieve its goal

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movements

specific limbs or combination of limbs that are components of skills / actions)

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One dimension classification systems for movements

1. * Size of Primary Musculature Required
- Gross
- Fine

2. *** Specificity of where the motor skill begins and end**
- Discrete motor skills - specified beginning and end points, usually require a simple movement
e.g. flipping a light switch
- Continuous motor skills - arbitrary beginning and end points; usually involve repetitive movements
e.g. steering a car

3. stability of enviorment
-Closed motor skills – – involve a stationary supporting surface, object, and/or other people; performer determines when to begin the action
e.g. picking up a cup while seated at a table
-Open motor skill- – involve supporting surface, object, and/or other people in motion; environment features determines when to begin the action
e.g. catching a thrown ball

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Open motor skill

– involve supporting surface, object, and/or other people in motion; environment features determines when to begin the action
e.g. catching a thrown ball

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Closed motor skills

– involve a stationary supporting surface, object, and/or other people; performer determines when to begin the action
e.g. picking up a cup while seated at a table

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Discrete motor skills

specified beginning and end points, usually require a simple movement
e.g. flipping a light switch

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Continuous motor skills

arbitrary beginning and end points; usually involve repetitive movements

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Gross motor skills

- require the use of large musculature to achieve the goal of the skills
e.g. walking, jumping

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Fine motor skills

require control of small muscles to achieve the goal of the skill
e.g. skills involving hand/eye coordination

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Taxonomy

A classification system organized according to relationships among the component characteristics of what is being classified

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Gentile Taxonomy classifications

1. Environmental context
2. Function of the action

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Enviormetal context characterisitics

***Regulatory conditions
Characteristics of environment that control the movement characteristics of an action
****Intertrial variability
Whether the regulatory conditions are the same or different from one performance attempt to another

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Function of the action
Two characteristics

1) Body orientation: whether or not the body stays in the same location (stability) or changes location (passive- on the bus – or active – walking)
2) Object manipulation: maintaining or changing the position of an object

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Performance

Execution of a skill at a specific time and in a specific location
**Observable behavior

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Learning

Not directly observable
Must be inferred from observable behavior
Definition: A change in the capability to perform a skill that must be inferred from a relatively permanent improvement in performance as a result of practice or experience

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performance variables

factors that affect performance but not learning, such as stress, fatigue, etc.)

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performance tes

assesses how one does in a particular session at a given time

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five characteristics of skill learning

Improvement (over time)
Consistency (less standard deviation)
Stability (resistant to internal – e.g., stress - and external – e.g., weather perturbation)
Persistence (retention – lasts over increasing periods of time)
Adaptability (contextual variety – adaptable to a variety of performance contexts, sometimes called generalizable)

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Improvement

ovrtime

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consistency

less standard deviation

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Stability

resistant to internal – e.g., stress - and external – e.g., weather perturbation)

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Persistence

(retention – lasts over increasing periods of time)

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Adaptability

Adaptability (contextual variety – adaptable to a variety of performance contexts, sometimes called generalizable)

Adaptability (contextual variety – adaptable to a variety of performance contexts, sometimes called generalizable)

Adaptability (contextual variety – adaptable to a variety of performance contexts, sometimes called generalizable)

Adaptability (contextual variety – adaptable to a variety of performance contexts, sometimes called generalizable)

Adaptability (contextual variety – adaptable to a variety of performance contexts, sometimes called generalizable)

Adaptability (contextual variety – adaptable to a variety of performance contexts, sometimes called generalizable)

Adaptability (contextual variety – adaptable to a variety of performance contexts, sometimes called generalizable)

(contextual variety – adaptable to a variety of performance contexts, sometimes called generalizable)

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Performance curves

-** x-axis (time units or trials) and y-axis (units of performance measurement)***
- Linear
- Neatively accelerated
- Positively accelerated
- Ogive or S- shaped

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Linear

Proportional increases over trials or time

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Negatively accelerated

Early improvement but slows during latter practice

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Positively accelerated

Slight improvement early but substantial improvement during later practice

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Ogive or S-shaped

compination of linear, negative, positive curve

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four main methods of assessing learning

Observing practice performance (performance curves)
2. Retention
3. Transfer tests
4. Coordination dynamics

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Retention test

Tests of a practiced skill that a learner performs following an interval of time after practice has ceased