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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (72)
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1

The Neuromotor System

Components of the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) involved in the control of coordinated movement

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Neuron

= Nerve cell
Basic component of the nervous system
Range in size from 4 to 100 microns

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Cell body

Contains the nucleus

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Dendrites

Extensions from cell body – range from 1 to thousands per neuron

Receive information from other cells

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Axon

Extension from cell body – one per neuron with branches (known as collaterals)
Sends information from neuron

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Three Types of Neurons

1. Sensory Neurons or “afferent” neurons

2. Motor Neurons or “efferent” neurons
Interneurons

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Sensory Neurons or “afferent” neurons

afferent or toward the brain-( least numerous

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Motor Neurons or “efferent” neurons
Interneurons

efferent or away from brain

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Interneurons

( most numerous)
efferent
**Function as connections between:
-Axons from the brain and synapse on motor neurons
- Axons from sensory nerves and the spinal nerves ascending to the brain

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Two components of CNS

Brain and spinal cord

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4 structural components of the brain most directly involved in the control of voluntary movement

1. Cerebrum
2. Diencephalon
3. Cerebellum
4. Brainstem

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Forebrain

cerebrum and diencephalon

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Frontal lobe

voluntary movement, reasoning
- primary motor cortex
- premotor area

not fully developed till 20 years old

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primary motor cortex

movement initiation and sends message to skeletal muscle

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premotor area

organizes movement PRIOR to initiation

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Supplementary motor area

Control SEQUENTIAL movements

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Parietal Lobe

perception of sensory info

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Occipital lobe

visual perception

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Temporal lobe

memory, abstract thought, hearing

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Basal ganglia

Deep in cerebrum; involved with smoothness of movement
(deficits: Parkinson’s disease & cerebral palsy)

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Diencephalon

Thalamus

- Hypthalmus

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Thalmus

relay station, attention and mood

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Hypothalamus

regulation of homeostasis (hunger, thirst)

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Cerebellum (left and right hemispheres)

Execution of smooth, coordinated movement

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Comparator

error detection and correction

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Brainstem

Body functions such as swallowing, chewing, breathing

Life support system

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Limbic system

emotions and visceral behaviors

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Motor unit

the alpha motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates

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theory

Describe a CLASS OF ACTIONS, make predictions about results of future observations

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Coordination

Regardless of level of skill
Pattering of head, body and limb movements at any specific point in time
Relative to patterning of environmental objects and events