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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (58)
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1

point light technique

a computer-based research technique used to investigate what the observer perceives

2

invariant features

the coordinated movement pattern

3

cognitive mediation theory
* reason why demonstration works

helps the learner develop an accessible memory representation that can be recalled. This supports the development of good error detection and correction strategies.

4

dynamic view of modeling
* reason why demonstration works

can skip the stage of cognitive mediation; learner sees the demonstration and automatically, the motor control system is constrained to act accordingly, that is, reproduce the movement

5

Issue of ATTENTION with verbal instructions

1) People have limited capacity to attend to information; don’t overload them
2) It is NOT useful to direct attention to specific movement components but rather to movement outcomes and regulatory environmental contexts (action effect hypothesis); i.e., external not internal focus
Directing the learner to movement components will hinder learning
3) Overloading people with attention demands can create a negative effect due to directing their attention away from necessary components of the task (Example – ball-catching study where the participants were distracted by searching for the rules they were taught, rather than the ball; this did not encourage a discovery learning situation)
4) If a skill requires both speed and accuracy, concentrate first on accuracy

6

Verbal cues can be used with

demonstration, during performance, or prompts said out loud while executing the skill, and aid both beginners and skilled practitioners

7

Verbal cues aid

both beginners and skilled practitioners

8

If a skill requires both speed and accuracy what chould be focused on first.

accuracy

9

task-intrinsic feedback

sensory – naturally available while performing a skill

10

Augmented feedback

Performance related information that is added to task-intrinsic feedback;
Typically comes from a source external to the person performing the skill

11

Types of augmented feedback

Knowledge of results (KR) is information about the outcome of a skill performance
Knowledge of performance (KP) is information about movement characteristics that leads to the outcome

12

Knowledge of results (KR)

information about the outcome of a skill performance

**KR is often quantitative (how many, how far, how fast)

13

Knowledge of performance (KP)

information about movement characteristics that leads to the outcome

***KP tells “the how”
Can use video replay and EMG biofeedback

14

In terms of skill acquisition, augmented feedback can be

be essential, (2) be not needed at all, (3) enhance, or (4) hinder (due to dependency)

15

CONTENT OF AUGMENTED FEEDBACK

1) Giving feedback based on error is more useful for skill enhancement than information related to correct action (praise), but the latter is useful for motivation.
2) KP is much more commonly taught and more useful to beginners than KR
3) Quantitative feedback has a numerical value; qualitative feedback is descriptive in nature; indicates quality of performance. In early learning, people pay more attention to qualitative
4) Error size: Performance bandwidths determine a range of acceptable error; feedback only given when the performer goes outside this bandwidth
5) Problems with giving erroneous KR – learner pays attention to it & gets worse!

16

Verbal KP

must select appropriate features of the performance

17

Descriptive KP

describes only the error a person has made

18

Perscriptive KP

describes errors and tells what needs to be done to correct them

19

Video recordings

beginners need instructor present to point out critical information

20

Types of KP

Verbal KP: must select appropriate features of the performance
Descriptive describes only the error a person has made, and Prescriptive describes errors and tells what needs to be done to correct them
2) Video recordings – beginners need instructor present to point out critical information
3) Movement kinematics (computer analysis)
4) Biofeedback (EMG recordings of muscle use)

21

Concurrent feedback

given while person is performing a skill; comes in many forms (visible indicators, sound indicators, computer monitors); can have negative or positive effects

22

Terminal feedback

provided after the person has completed the skill

23

KR-delay interval

time between completion of action and giving augmented feedback

24

Post-KR interval

time between receiving augmented feedback and the next trial

25

KR trial process

Trial #1 – KR delay interval – augmented feedback – post-KR interval – trial #2

26

KR delay interval/ Post- KR interval

In these two intervals, it is useful to plan one’s strategy, or estimate your own error; it is not useful to participate or plan other activities

27

guidance hypothesis

states that it is best NOT to give constant feedback (dependency on feedback)

28

Traditional view of feedback frequency

More is better

29

Three techniques to reduce feedback

* performance-based bandwidths,
* self-selected frequency (give feedback when person requests it)
* summary and averaged augmented feedback

30


Overlearning

practice that continues beyond what is needed to achieve the skill, or get to a certain performance criterion; it has a positive influence on retention