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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (140):
1

What is the order of the uterine layer from inside out?

mucosa -> submucosa -> circular smooth muscle -> longitudinal smooth muscle -> serosa

2

Ruminant Uterus: Distinguishing Feature

small uterine body, large uterine horns w/ caruncles

3

Sow Uterus: Distinguishing Feature

corkscrew cervix, wavy uterine horns

4

Mare Uterus: Distinguishing Features

large uterine body, small uterine horns

5

Oocyst Cycle: Order

primordial follicles -> primary follicles -> secondary follicle -> tertiary follicle -> antral follicle -> ovulation -> corpus luteum -> corpus albicans

6

Primary Follicle: Definition

oocyst w/ single cuboidal cell layer

7

Secondary Follicle: Definition

primary follicle w/ zona pellucida

8

Tertiary Follicle: Definition

secondary follicle surrounded in fluid, palpable

9

Antral Follicle: Definition

Tertiary follicle ready for ovulation, visible, inhibits development of other follicles

10

Corpus Luteum: Definition

produces progesterone

11

Infidibulum: appearance

"catcher's mitt" of oviduct

12

Ampulla: Appearance

highly folded mucosa

13

Isthmus: Appearance

smooth mucosa, muscular

14

T/F: The medulla in mares is the center of the ovary.

False.
It is around the outside of the ovary

15

What are the male accessory sex glands in order from testes to urethra?

ampulla, vesicular glands, prostate, bulbourethral gland

16

What species only has the prostate?

dog

17

What species have all the accessory sex glands?

horse and ruminants

18

What species is only missing the ampulla?

pigs

19

What species is missing only the ampulla and vesicular glands?

cat

20

Leydig Cells: Hormone Response

LH -> progesterone/testosterone

21

Setoli Cells: Hormone Response

FSH => testosterone -> estrodiol

22

Sperm Differentiation: Phases

golgi -> cap -> acrosomal -> maturation

23

Golgi Phase: Process

acrosomal vesicle forms

24

Cap Phase: Process

acrosomal vesicle spreads over nucleus

25

Acrosomal Phase: Process

nucleus and cytoplasm elongates

26

Maturation Phase: Process

speratozoon is ready

27

Spermatozoon Anatomy: Head

nucleus, acrosome, postnuclear body

28

Spermatozoon Anatomy: Tail

middle piece, principle piece, terminal piece

29

T/F: Males have a surge center in the hypothalamus.

False
Females have a surge center

30

What causes the male to loose the surge center?

testosterone crossing the BBB and becoming estrodiol

31

What factors effect puberty onset?

size (females), seasonality, presence of opposite sex, genetics, housing density

32

What are the 4 cardinal signs of pregnancy in cattle?

fetal membrane slip
amniotic vesicle
placentomes
fetus

33

Membrane Slip: Time of Palpation

30-90d

34

Amniotic Vesicle: Time of Palpation

~32-60d

35

Placentomes: Time of Palpation

~80-end, inc. in size with time

36

Fetus: Time of Palpation

70d - descent begins (due to weight)
150d - descent ends
210d - ascent begins (due to inc. size)
240d - ascent ends

37

T/F: Hormones can cross the BBB, but steroids can't.

False
Steroids can cross the BBB, but hormones can't

38

What species are polyestrus?

bovine, porcine, rodents

39

What species are Seasonally Polyestrus?

short day - sheep, goats, deer
Long day - horse

40

What species are "Monestrus"?

canine, wolves, bears

41

Estrus Cycle: Phases

follicular, luteal

42

Follicular Phase: Primary Hormone

estrogen

43

Luteal Phase: Primary Hormone

progesterone

44

Estrus Cycle: Stages

(follicular phase) proestrus, estrus,
(luteal phase) metestrus, diestrus

45

Proestrus: Events

formation of ovulatory follicles, FSH + LH -> estrogen production

46

Estrus: Events

sexually receptive, peak estrogen secretion, ovulation

47

Metestrus: Events

CL formation, progesterone secretion

48

Diestrus: Events

peak progesterone secretion, ends with luteolysis

49

Prepartum: Changes

udder edema and milk production, relaxation of pelvic lig. -> raised tail head, melting of cervical plug

50

What stimulates parturition?

fetal ACTH

51

Eutocia: Stages

I - initiation of myometial contractions
II - expulsion of the fetus
III - expulsion of the membranes

52

Parturition: Stage I - Duration

1-6hrs

53

Parturition: Stage I - Signs

restlessness, isolation, nesting, inc. HR+RR

54

Parturition: Stage II - Duration

30-60min

55

Parturition: Stage II - Signs

active straining

56

Ferguson's Reflex: Definition

wedging of fetus into cervix => inc. oxytocin release => inc. uterine contraction

57

What are the 3 P's of Eutocia?

presentation, postision, posture

58

Eutocia Presentation: Definition

relation between fetus and dam spine, and part of fetus facing out
longitudinal: spines parallel
anterior - head first
posterior - butt first
transverse - spines perpendicular

59

Eutocia Position: Definition

anatomic relation of fetus dorsum to maternal pelvis
e.g. - dorso-sacral, dorso-pubic, dorso - ilial

60

Eutocia Posture: Definiion

anatomic relation of fetal limbs to body
e.g. flexed, extended, retained

61

Dystocia: Maternal Causes

primary uterine inertia, secondary uterine inertia, abnormal birth canal

62

Dystocia: Fetal Causes

abnormal presentation, fetal monsters, fetal oversize

63

Primary Uterine Inertia: Definition

dam doesn't progress to stage II

64

Secondary Uterine Inertia: Definition

exhaustion of myometrium after extended labor

65

Dystocia: Other Causes

insufficient/excess nutrition, management, dz, trauma

66

What are the barriers surrounding the oocyst after ovulation?

cumulus cells, zona pellucida, oocyte membrane

67

T/F: The acrosome reaction is only effective if if the sperm is bound to the zona pelucida.

true

68

When does the Cortical Reaction occur?

when the sperm attaches to the oocyte plasma

69

What happens to the oocyte after the cortical reaction?

zona pelusida hardens + vitelline membrane changes -> prevents other sperm form binding

70

What must happen before the embryo attaches to the uterus?

the embyro must develop w/in zp + "hatch" from zp, maternal recognition, extra-embryonic membrane formation

71

T/F: Each cell of the blastomere is multipotent.

False
each cell is Totipotent, meaning it can become a complete individual

72

What is the earliest visible stage of pregnancy?

blastocyst on U/S

73

Embryo Attachment: Cow

18-22d

74

Embryo Attachment: Mare

36-45d

75

Embryo Attachment: Sow/Ewe

15-18d

76

Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy: Ruminants

interferon tau from trophoblastic cells, inhibit oxytocin receptor => no PGF2a release

77

Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy: Sow

E2 from blastocyst => PGF2a destruction

78

Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy: Mare

blastocyst migration throughout lumen, PGE2 from embryo

79

What extra-embryonic membrane(s) becomes the placenta?

allanto-chorion

80

Placental Layering: Types

epitheliochorial, endotheliochorial, hemochorial

81

Epitheliochorial: Number of Layers

6 (3-3)

82

Epitheliochorial: Examples

diffuse + cotyledonary placentas

83

Endotheliochorial: Number of Layers

5 (2-3)

84

Endotheliochorial: Example

zonary placenta

85

Hemochorial: Number of Layers

4 (1-3)

86

Hemochorial: Example

discoid placenta

87

T/F: The fewer placental layers the more protected the fetus is from toxins.

False
the more layers, the more protected.

88

Placenta: Function

metabolic interchange, endocrine, P4 production (cow, ewe, mare)

89

Dairy Cattle: Breeding Cycle

Parturition -> VWP (60d) -> breeding -> Dry-off (60d)

90

Estrus Detection Aids: Cattle

Tail pressure monitors, teaser bulls, pedometry

91

Beef Cattle: Breeding Cycle

(bull left in herd) visit on 21 day cycles

92

Beef Cattle: Breeding Goals

~60% after first cycle
~15% after second cycle
~10% after third cycle

93

What does the breeding histogram look like when there is bull failure?

normal beginning then drop-off

94

Estrus Synchronization: Methods

Prostaglandin, Progestin, Luteal + Follicular synchronization

95

Prostaglandin Program: Purpose

lyse CL => brings back into cycle (2-5d)

96

When is Prostaglandin program implemented?

2 shots, during diestrus, 11d apart

97

Progesterone Program: Purpose

prolong diestrus

98

When is Progesterone Program implemented?

at the end of diestrus w/ feed (MGA) or implant (CIDR)

99

Follicular Synchronization: Purpose

initiate ovulation

100

When is Follicular Synchronization initiated?

whenever

101

How do you tell if the front legs or back legs are forward?

front legs - joints bend in the same direction
Hind legs - joints bend in opposite directions

102

Obstetrical Management: Mutation

reposition the fetus

103

Obstetrical Management: Repulstion

push the fetus back

104

Obstetrical Management: Rotation

twist fetus into dorso-sacral

105

Obstetrical Management: Version

turn fetus longitudinally

106

How do you place chains on the leg?

one loop above the hoof, one loop above the fetlock

107

T/F: It is easier to pull out the fetus by pulling both legs at the same time.

False
Alternate between left and right to twist shoulder/waist

108

Episiotomy: Definition

expand vulva by incising at 10/2

109

Fetotomy: Requirements

adequate space between uterine wall and fetus, easy removal of parts

110

Fetotomy: Cuts

decapitation, forelimb amputation, detruncation, division of pelvis

111

T/F: Decapitation should be done as low on the neck as possible.

True

112

Fetotomy: Aftercare

lavage uterus, antibiotics, Ca

113

Fetotomy: Indications

dead fetus, uncorrectable malposition, undeliverable

114

What is a "True Breech"?

when the fetus is caudal, dorso-sacral, with both hind legs retunded

115

C-Section: Indications

unsafe vaginal delivery,, want to keep fetus

116

C-Section: Approaches

ventral midline, standing flank, recumbent flank

117

C-Section: Uterine Closure

inverting pattern - Utrecht ("baseball stitch"), cushing, lembert
oxytocin

118

T/F: Vaginal prolapse is heritable.

True

119

Vaginal Prolapse: Grades

1 - slight protrusion only when lying down
2 - slight protrusion when standing
3 - extensive protrusion
4 - extensive protrusion w/ necrosis

120

Vaginal Prolapse: Tx

epidural, clean, dec. edema (sugar), reduction (don't use fingertips)

121

How do you prevent reoccurrence of Vaginal Prolapse?

Buhner, halstead, bootlace, jorvet kit

122

T/F: Uterine Prolapse is hereditary.

False
it's accidental

123

T/F: It is ok for the cow to be walking around with a prolapsed uterus.

False
The cow should be immobilized

124

Prolapsed Uterus: Tx

epidural, clean, dec. edema, reduce (vulva -> deep), antibiotics, Ca

125

Prolapsed Uterus: Sequela

Uterine Artery Rupture, septicemia, strangulation, reperfusion

126

Perineal Lacerations: Degrees

1st - only mucosa, spontaneously heals
2nd - entire wall, but doesn't include the rectum, wait 6-8wk then sx
3rd - entire wall including rectum, wait 6-8wk before sx

127

Uterine Involution: Risk Factors

retained membranes, progesterone, oxytocin, inflammation

128

Metritis: Signs

red-brown watery uterine discharge, w/in 21 postpartum

129

Metritis: Tx

antibiotics, anti-inflammatory, +/- uterine lavage

130

Endometritis: Signs

purulent discharge >21 day postpartum

131

Endometritis: Tx

antibiotics, oxytocin, supportive

132

Pyometra: Signs

purulent exudate in uterus, unobserved estrus,

133

Pyometra: Etiology

(endo)metritis and concurrent CL

134

Pyometra: Tx

remove CL (PGF2a)

135

Prepubertal Anestrus: Etiology

poor nutrition, too young, intersex states

136

True Anestrus: Etiology

insufficient hormone stimulus

137

Apparent Anestrus: Etiology

failure to detect estrus

138

Ovarian Follicular Cysts: Signs

anestrus, nymphomania, irregular estrus

139

Ovarian Follicular Cysts: Dx

signs, U/S (fluid filled sac on ovary

140

Ovarian Follicular Cysts: Tx

self limiting, manual rupture, lyse