Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (140):
What is the order of the uterine layer from inside out?
mucosa -> submucosa -> circular smooth muscle -> longitudinal smooth muscle -> serosa
Ruminant Uterus: Distinguishing Feature
small uterine body, large uterine horns w/ caruncles
Sow Uterus: Distinguishing Feature
corkscrew cervix, wavy uterine horns
Mare Uterus: Distinguishing Features
large uterine body, small uterine horns
Oocyst Cycle: Order
primordial follicles -> primary follicles -> secondary follicle -> tertiary follicle -> antral follicle -> ovulation -> corpus luteum -> corpus albicans
Primary Follicle: Definition
oocyst w/ single cuboidal cell layer
Secondary Follicle: Definition
primary follicle w/ zona pellucida
Tertiary Follicle: Definition
secondary follicle surrounded in fluid, palpable
Antral Follicle: Definition
Tertiary follicle ready for ovulation, visible, inhibits development of other follicles
Corpus Luteum: Definition
"catcher's mitt" of oviduct
highly folded mucosa
smooth mucosa, muscular
T/F: The medulla in mares is the center of the ovary.
It is around the outside of the ovary
What are the male accessory sex glands in order from testes to urethra?
ampulla, vesicular glands, prostate, bulbourethral gland
What species only has the prostate?
What species have all the accessory sex glands?
horse and ruminants
What species is only missing the ampulla?
What species is missing only the ampulla and vesicular glands?
Leydig Cells: Hormone Response
LH -> progesterone/testosterone
Setoli Cells: Hormone Response
FSH => testosterone -> estrodiol
Sperm Differentiation: Phases
golgi -> cap -> acrosomal -> maturation
Golgi Phase: Process
acrosomal vesicle forms
Cap Phase: Process
acrosomal vesicle spreads over nucleus
Acrosomal Phase: Process
nucleus and cytoplasm elongates
Maturation Phase: Process
speratozoon is ready
Spermatozoon Anatomy: Head
nucleus, acrosome, postnuclear body
Spermatozoon Anatomy: Tail
middle piece, principle piece, terminal piece
T/F: Males have a surge center in the hypothalamus.
Females have a surge center
What causes the male to loose the surge center?
testosterone crossing the BBB and becoming estrodiol
What factors effect puberty onset?
size (females), seasonality, presence of opposite sex, genetics, housing density
What are the 4 cardinal signs of pregnancy in cattle?
fetal membrane slip
Membrane Slip: Time of Palpation
Amniotic Vesicle: Time of Palpation
Placentomes: Time of Palpation
~80-end, inc. in size with time
Fetus: Time of Palpation
70d - descent begins (due to weight)
150d - descent ends
210d - ascent begins (due to inc. size)
240d - ascent ends
T/F: Hormones can cross the BBB, but steroids can't.
Steroids can cross the BBB, but hormones can't
What species are polyestrus?
bovine, porcine, rodents
What species are Seasonally Polyestrus?
short day - sheep, goats, deer
Long day - horse
What species are "Monestrus"?
canine, wolves, bears
Estrus Cycle: Phases
Follicular Phase: Primary Hormone
Luteal Phase: Primary Hormone
Estrus Cycle: Stages
(follicular phase) proestrus, estrus,
(luteal phase) metestrus, diestrus
formation of ovulatory follicles, FSH + LH -> estrogen production
sexually receptive, peak estrogen secretion, ovulation
CL formation, progesterone secretion
peak progesterone secretion, ends with luteolysis
udder edema and milk production, relaxation of pelvic lig. -> raised tail head, melting of cervical plug
What stimulates parturition?
I - initiation of myometial contractions
II - expulsion of the fetus
III - expulsion of the membranes
Parturition: Stage I - Duration
Parturition: Stage I - Signs
restlessness, isolation, nesting, inc. HR+RR
Parturition: Stage II - Duration
Parturition: Stage II - Signs
Ferguson's Reflex: Definition
wedging of fetus into cervix => inc. oxytocin release => inc. uterine contraction
What are the 3 P's of Eutocia?
presentation, postision, posture
Eutocia Presentation: Definition
relation between fetus and dam spine, and part of fetus facing out
longitudinal: spines parallel
anterior - head first
posterior - butt first
transverse - spines perpendicular
Eutocia Position: Definition
anatomic relation of fetus dorsum to maternal pelvis
e.g. - dorso-sacral, dorso-pubic, dorso - ilial
Eutocia Posture: Definiion
anatomic relation of fetal limbs to body
e.g. flexed, extended, retained
Dystocia: Maternal Causes
primary uterine inertia, secondary uterine inertia, abnormal birth canal
Dystocia: Fetal Causes
abnormal presentation, fetal monsters, fetal oversize
Primary Uterine Inertia: Definition
dam doesn't progress to stage II
Secondary Uterine Inertia: Definition
exhaustion of myometrium after extended labor
Dystocia: Other Causes
insufficient/excess nutrition, management, dz, trauma
What are the barriers surrounding the oocyst after ovulation?
cumulus cells, zona pellucida, oocyte membrane
T/F: The acrosome reaction is only effective if if the sperm is bound to the zona pelucida.
When does the Cortical Reaction occur?
when the sperm attaches to the oocyte plasma
What happens to the oocyte after the cortical reaction?
zona pelusida hardens + vitelline membrane changes -> prevents other sperm form binding
What must happen before the embryo attaches to the uterus?
the embyro must develop w/in zp + "hatch" from zp, maternal recognition, extra-embryonic membrane formation
T/F: Each cell of the blastomere is multipotent.
each cell is Totipotent, meaning it can become a complete individual
What is the earliest visible stage of pregnancy?
blastocyst on U/S
Embryo Attachment: Cow
Embryo Attachment: Mare
Embryo Attachment: Sow/Ewe
Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy: Ruminants
interferon tau from trophoblastic cells, inhibit oxytocin receptor => no PGF2a release
Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy: Sow
E2 from blastocyst => PGF2a destruction
Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy: Mare
blastocyst migration throughout lumen, PGE2 from embryo
What extra-embryonic membrane(s) becomes the placenta?
Placental Layering: Types
epitheliochorial, endotheliochorial, hemochorial
Epitheliochorial: Number of Layers
diffuse + cotyledonary placentas
Endotheliochorial: Number of Layers
Hemochorial: Number of Layers
T/F: The fewer placental layers the more protected the fetus is from toxins.
the more layers, the more protected.
metabolic interchange, endocrine, P4 production (cow, ewe, mare)
Dairy Cattle: Breeding Cycle
Parturition -> VWP (60d) -> breeding -> Dry-off (60d)
Estrus Detection Aids: Cattle
Tail pressure monitors, teaser bulls, pedometry
Beef Cattle: Breeding Cycle
(bull left in herd) visit on 21 day cycles
Beef Cattle: Breeding Goals
~60% after first cycle
~15% after second cycle
~10% after third cycle
What does the breeding histogram look like when there is bull failure?
normal beginning then drop-off
Estrus Synchronization: Methods
Prostaglandin, Progestin, Luteal + Follicular synchronization
Prostaglandin Program: Purpose
lyse CL => brings back into cycle (2-5d)
When is Prostaglandin program implemented?
2 shots, during diestrus, 11d apart
Progesterone Program: Purpose
When is Progesterone Program implemented?
at the end of diestrus w/ feed (MGA) or implant (CIDR)
Follicular Synchronization: Purpose
When is Follicular Synchronization initiated?
How do you tell if the front legs or back legs are forward?
front legs - joints bend in the same direction
Hind legs - joints bend in opposite directions
Obstetrical Management: Mutation
reposition the fetus
Obstetrical Management: Repulstion
push the fetus back
Obstetrical Management: Rotation
twist fetus into dorso-sacral
Obstetrical Management: Version
turn fetus longitudinally
How do you place chains on the leg?
one loop above the hoof, one loop above the fetlock
T/F: It is easier to pull out the fetus by pulling both legs at the same time.
Alternate between left and right to twist shoulder/waist
expand vulva by incising at 10/2
adequate space between uterine wall and fetus, easy removal of parts
decapitation, forelimb amputation, detruncation, division of pelvis
T/F: Decapitation should be done as low on the neck as possible.
lavage uterus, antibiotics, Ca
dead fetus, uncorrectable malposition, undeliverable
What is a "True Breech"?
when the fetus is caudal, dorso-sacral, with both hind legs retunded
unsafe vaginal delivery,, want to keep fetus
ventral midline, standing flank, recumbent flank
C-Section: Uterine Closure
inverting pattern - Utrecht ("baseball stitch"), cushing, lembert
T/F: Vaginal prolapse is heritable.
Vaginal Prolapse: Grades
1 - slight protrusion only when lying down
2 - slight protrusion when standing
3 - extensive protrusion
4 - extensive protrusion w/ necrosis
Vaginal Prolapse: Tx
epidural, clean, dec. edema (sugar), reduction (don't use fingertips)
How do you prevent reoccurrence of Vaginal Prolapse?
Buhner, halstead, bootlace, jorvet kit
T/F: Uterine Prolapse is hereditary.
T/F: It is ok for the cow to be walking around with a prolapsed uterus.
The cow should be immobilized
Prolapsed Uterus: Tx
epidural, clean, dec. edema, reduce (vulva -> deep), antibiotics, Ca
Prolapsed Uterus: Sequela
Uterine Artery Rupture, septicemia, strangulation, reperfusion
Perineal Lacerations: Degrees
1st - only mucosa, spontaneously heals
2nd - entire wall, but doesn't include the rectum, wait 6-8wk then sx
3rd - entire wall including rectum, wait 6-8wk before sx
Uterine Involution: Risk Factors
retained membranes, progesterone, oxytocin, inflammation
red-brown watery uterine discharge, w/in 21 postpartum
antibiotics, anti-inflammatory, +/- uterine lavage
purulent discharge >21 day postpartum
antibiotics, oxytocin, supportive
purulent exudate in uterus, unobserved estrus,
(endo)metritis and concurrent CL
remove CL (PGF2a)
Prepubertal Anestrus: Etiology
poor nutrition, too young, intersex states
True Anestrus: Etiology
insufficient hormone stimulus
Apparent Anestrus: Etiology
failure to detect estrus
Ovarian Follicular Cysts: Signs
anestrus, nymphomania, irregular estrus
Ovarian Follicular Cysts: Dx
signs, U/S (fluid filled sac on ovary