Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (81):
T/F: The equine cervix is the least sensitive organ to hormones.
Equine: Cervix Appearance
progesterone - closed and dry
estrogen - low, relaxed, moist
T/F: The equine cervix can always be dilated.
because they don't have fibrous rings
How many folds does the equine uterus have?
Equine Oviduct: Function
sperm storage, fertilization site, embryo transport
When and how does the embryo descend to the uterus?
5.5d after ovulation when UTJ opens from PGE
How large are mature equine follicles?
Equine: Udder confimation
2 glands/teat (half)
When do you start artificial lighting to induce estrus in mares?
What hormones can be used to reduce the transitional period?
progesterone for 10d
progestagens (alternogest) for 10d
Equine: Estrus Detection
rectal palpation, U/S
When should ovulation be induced in mares?
follicle size >35mm, uterine edema
Equine Ovulation: Induction Hormones
hCG - w/in 24-48hrs
Deslorelin - between 38-44hrs
What are reasons a mare fails to respond to ovulation induction agents?
immature follicle, not in estrus, anovulatory follicle
How do you differentiate a CL?
U/S shows vascularization
Equine Luteolysis: Induction Agents
return to estrus in 3-5d
Equine Luteolysis: Induction Timing
CL must be 5d old
Mare BSE: Components
hx, general appearance, perineal area, PE, repro exam
Equine: Vulvar Conformation
windsucker test, 2/3 below pelvic bone
cervical position, detect discharge/lacerations
T/F: The maiden mare's cervix will lose functional integrity around 8yrs old.
Equine: Cervix Pathology
fails to relax during estrus, fails to close during diestrus, adhesions
Equine: Uterine Culture - Purpose
pre-breeding screening, endometritis
T/F: Both cytology and culture must be positive to indicate contamination.
only 1 has to be positive
What are the 2 most common bacteria found on Uterine culture?
Staph zooepidemicus, klebsiella
When do you perform a uterine biopsy?
repeated fetal deaths, fail to respond to tx
Equine: Uterine Biopsy - Grades
I - normal (80-90% foaling)
IIA - mild change (50-80% foaling)
IIB - moderate change (10-50% foaling)
III - severe change (less than 10% foaling)
What factors influence chances of pregnancy?
management, clean mare, timing, semen
Equine Pregnancy Rate: Equation
#mares pregnant/ #mares bred
Equine Pregnancy Rate: Goals
Equine Estrus: Signs
progressive uterine edema, cervix flexed
Equine: Insemination Timing
natural/fresh - 48-72hrs prior
fresh cooled - 24-36hrs prior
frozen - less than 12hr
Equine: Pregnancy Detection
embryo enters uterus - ~6d
fixation + prostaglandin rise - 16d
heartbeat - ~25d
placental formation - 35-40d
no longer CL dependant - 90d
endometrial cup regression - 100d
Equine: Vesicle Development
10d - 14d
5mm - 22mm
Equine: Vesicle Morphology - Embryo
@24d embryo on ventral aspect
@28d embryo in middle
@35d embryo on dorsal aspect
Equine: Vesicle Morphology - Fetus
@38d fetus begins ventral migration
after 45d fetus reaches ventral aspect, umbilical cord formed
When are you able to sex the fetus?
What does endometrial cups produce?
eCG => accessory CL
T/F: Twin pregnancies in mares are favorable.
they are NOT favorable
Equine Twining: Reduction Methods
spontaneous, manual, transvaginal aspiration, manual trauma, snap neck, IC KCl, sx, diet
What's the difference between fetal mummificaion and maceration in equines?
mummification - death in absence of bact
maceration - death in presence of bact
When does hydrallantois present?
after 7th mo
Equine Hydrallontois: Tx
dilate cervix, puncture membrane, slow release, oxytocin q30min
Equine Prepubic Tendon Rupture: Signs
distended abdomen, "saw-horse" stance, congested udder
When is a mare's gestation considered prolonged?
Equine Gestation: Fescue Effects
dec. milk, prolonged gestation, weak foals/abortion, dystocia
Equine Gestation: Fescue Tx
remove 30-45d prior, low progesterone starting @ 300d, domperidone
When should you vaccinate mares so that they have the antibodies in the colostrum?
Equine Parturition: Signs
udder formation, presence of colostrum, relaxed cervix
Equine Milk: Electrolyte Trends
K inc then dec
Equine Parturition: Induction Drugs
oxytocin - foals w/in 60min
steroids and prostaglandins are unpredictable
Equine Parturition: Placental Assessment
spread and rinse, confirm it's complete, umbilical length
When should the placenta in mares be expelled by?
Equine Retained Placenta: Tx
Equine Perineal Lacerations: Degrees
1st: skin and MM
2nd: 1st + deeper structure
3rd: complete tear
T/F: Dystocia in the mare is always an emergency.
Equine Dystocia: EXIT Definition
EX-utero Intra-partum Treatment
Equine Dystocia: EXIT Procedure
intubate foal while in birth canal, ventilate w/ ambubag
Stallion BSE: Sperm Exam Components
Stallion BSE: Pre-Season Exam
culture, longevity, lameness, vx, semen evaluation
Stallion BSE: External Genitalia Exam
skin thickness, testis size number, orientation, scrotal width
T/F: You can predict the DSO of the stallion based on the size of the testes.
What is the proper way for the stallion to dismount?
walk the mare forward
T/F: Stallions perform better when a routine is not implemented
They perform better when a routine is implemented
Stallion Chemical Ejaculation: Drug
Summer Sores: Etiology
haberonema muscae larva
Summer Sores: Signs
granulomatous rxn, yellow caseous granules
Summer Sores: Tx
0.532(L x W x H)
Stallion Seminal Plasma Alkaline Phosphate: Value Interpretation
>1000 true ejaculation
100-1000 partial ejaculation/blockage
less than 100 ejaculation failure/blockage
massage amullae, oxytocin, inc. frequency of collection
T/F: Hormones can improve semen quality.
Proud Cut: Definition
castrated but some of testes left behind
Camelids: Luteal Phase Length
Which uterine horn do most camelid embryos implant?
Camelids: Gestation Length
Camelids: Age of Puberty
T/F: Camelids are induced ovulators.
Camelid Female Infertility: Etiologies
persistant hymen, segmental aplasia, intersex, uterine infections
What is the Epidural Membrane in Camelids?
extra fetal membrane for lubrication