Final Exam Flashcards Preview

Therio > Final Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (81):
1

T/F: The equine cervix is the least sensitive organ to hormones.

false

2

Equine: Cervix Appearance

progesterone - closed and dry
estrogen - low, relaxed, moist

3

T/F: The equine cervix can always be dilated.

True
because they don't have fibrous rings

4

How many folds does the equine uterus have?

12-14

5

Equine Oviduct: Function

sperm storage, fertilization site, embryo transport

6

When and how does the embryo descend to the uterus?

5.5d after ovulation when UTJ opens from PGE

7

How large are mature equine follicles?

40+mm

8

Equine: Udder confimation

2 teats
2 glands/teat (half)

9

When do you start artificial lighting to induce estrus in mares?

60d prior

10

What hormones can be used to reduce the transitional period?

progesterone for 10d
progestagens (alternogest) for 10d
dopamine antagonists

11

Equine: Estrus Detection

rectal palpation, U/S

12

When should ovulation be induced in mares?

follicle size >35mm, uterine edema

13

Equine Ovulation: Induction Hormones

hCG - w/in 24-48hrs
Deslorelin - between 38-44hrs

14

What are reasons a mare fails to respond to ovulation induction agents?

immature follicle, not in estrus, anovulatory follicle

15

How do you differentiate a CL?

U/S shows vascularization

16

Equine Luteolysis: Induction Agents

PGF2a (lutalyse)
Clorprostenol (estrumate)
return to estrus in 3-5d

17

Equine Luteolysis: Induction Timing

CL must be 5d old

18

Mare BSE: Components

hx, general appearance, perineal area, PE, repro exam

19

Equine: Vulvar Conformation

windsucker test, 2/3 below pelvic bone

20

Equine: Vaginoscopy

cervical position, detect discharge/lacerations

21

T/F: The maiden mare's cervix will lose functional integrity around 8yrs old.

true

22

Equine: Cervix Pathology

fails to relax during estrus, fails to close during diestrus, adhesions

23

Equine: Uterine Culture - Purpose

pre-breeding screening, endometritis

24

T/F: Both cytology and culture must be positive to indicate contamination.

False
only 1 has to be positive

25

What are the 2 most common bacteria found on Uterine culture?

Staph zooepidemicus, klebsiella

26

When do you perform a uterine biopsy?

repeated fetal deaths, fail to respond to tx

27

Equine: Uterine Biopsy - Grades

I - normal (80-90% foaling)
IIA - mild change (50-80% foaling)
IIB - moderate change (10-50% foaling)
III - severe change (less than 10% foaling)

28

What factors influence chances of pregnancy?

management, clean mare, timing, semen

29

Equine Pregnancy Rate: Equation

#mares pregnant/ #mares bred

30

Equine Pregnancy Rate: Goals

60% /cycle
>90% /season

31

Equine Estrus: Signs

progressive uterine edema, cervix flexed

32

Equine: Insemination Timing

natural/fresh - 48-72hrs prior
fresh cooled - 24-36hrs prior
frozen - less than 12hr

33

Equine: Pregnancy Detection

embryo enters uterus - ~6d
fixation + prostaglandin rise - 16d
heartbeat - ~25d
placental formation - 35-40d
no longer CL dependant - 90d
endometrial cup regression - 100d

34

Equine: Vesicle Development

10d - 14d
5mm - 22mm

35

Equine: Vesicle Morphology - Embryo

round, anechoic
@24d embryo on ventral aspect
@28d embryo in middle
@35d embryo on dorsal aspect

36

Equine: Vesicle Morphology - Fetus

round anechoic
@38d fetus begins ventral migration
after 45d fetus reaches ventral aspect, umbilical cord formed

37

When are you able to sex the fetus?

55-65d

38

What does endometrial cups produce?

eCG => accessory CL

39

T/F: Twin pregnancies in mares are favorable.

false
they are NOT favorable

40

Equine Twining: Reduction Methods

spontaneous, manual, transvaginal aspiration, manual trauma, snap neck, IC KCl, sx, diet

41

What's the difference between fetal mummificaion and maceration in equines?

mummification - death in absence of bact
maceration - death in presence of bact

42

When does hydrallantois present?

after 7th mo

43

Equine Hydrallontois: Tx

dilate cervix, puncture membrane, slow release, oxytocin q30min

44

Equine Prepubic Tendon Rupture: Signs

distended abdomen, "saw-horse" stance, congested udder

45

When is a mare's gestation considered prolonged?

>360d

46

Equine Gestation: Fescue Effects

dec. milk, prolonged gestation, weak foals/abortion, dystocia

47

Equine Gestation: Fescue Tx

remove 30-45d prior, low progesterone starting @ 300d, domperidone

48

When should you vaccinate mares so that they have the antibodies in the colostrum?

4-6wk prior

49

Equine Parturition: Signs

udder formation, presence of colostrum, relaxed cervix

50

Equine Milk: Electrolyte Trends

Na dec
Ca inc
K inc then dec

51

Equine Parturition: Induction Drugs

oxytocin - foals w/in 60min
steroids and prostaglandins are unpredictable

52

Equine Parturition: Placental Assessment

spread and rinse, confirm it's complete, umbilical length

53

When should the placenta in mares be expelled by?

3hrs

54

Equine Retained Placenta: Tx

oxytocin

55

Equine Perineal Lacerations: Degrees

1st: skin and MM
2nd: 1st + deeper structure
3rd: complete tear

56

T/F: Dystocia in the mare is always an emergency.

true

57

Equine Dystocia: EXIT Definition

EX-utero Intra-partum Treatment

58

Equine Dystocia: EXIT Procedure

intubate foal while in birth canal, ventilate w/ ambubag

59

Stallion BSE: Sperm Exam Components

volume
concentration
motility

60

Stallion BSE: Pre-Season Exam

culture, longevity, lameness, vx, semen evaluation

61

Stallion BSE: External Genitalia Exam

skin thickness, testis size number, orientation, scrotal width

62

T/F: You can predict the DSO of the stallion based on the size of the testes.

True

63

What is the proper way for the stallion to dismount?

walk the mare forward

64

T/F: Stallions perform better when a routine is not implemented

false
They perform better when a routine is implemented

65

Stallion Chemical Ejaculation: Drug

imipramine

66

Summer Sores: Etiology

haberonema muscae larva

67

Summer Sores: Signs

granulomatous rxn, yellow caseous granules

68

Summer Sores: Tx

ivermectin

69

DSO: Equation

0.532(L x W x H)

70

Stallion Seminal Plasma Alkaline Phosphate: Value Interpretation

>1000 true ejaculation
100-1000 partial ejaculation/blockage
less than 100 ejaculation failure/blockage

71

Oligo-/Azospermia: Tx

massage amullae, oxytocin, inc. frequency of collection

72

T/F: Hormones can improve semen quality.

True

73

Proud Cut: Definition

castrated but some of testes left behind

74

Camelids: Luteal Phase Length

9d

75

Which uterine horn do most camelid embryos implant?

left horn

76

Camelids: Gestation Length

11.5mo

77

Camelids: Age of Puberty

1-2yr

78

T/F: Camelids are induced ovulators.

true

79

Camelid Female Infertility: Etiologies

persistant hymen, segmental aplasia, intersex, uterine infections

80

What is the Epidural Membrane in Camelids?

extra fetal membrane for lubrication

81

Camelid: Semen Collection

intravaginal condoms/sponges, post copula aspiration, electroejaculation, AV