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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (155):
1

Bovine Listeria: Location

ubiquitous, concentrated in rotting hay/improperly stored silage

2

Bovine Listeria: Signs

abortion in last trimester, listeria signs in dam

3

Bovine Listeria: Dx

culture - fetal tissue, placenta

4

Bovine Listeria: Lesions

autolysed fetus w/ necrotic foci in liver
pinpoint yellow, necrotic foci on tips of cotlendonary villi, w/ placentitis

5

Bovine Lepto: Types

host adapted, non-host adapted

6

What type of lepto causes abortion storms in bovine?

non-host adapted

7

Bovine Lepto: Signs

hepato/renal dz, hemolytic anemia, abortion, photosensitization
if any

8

Bovine Lepto: Dx

FAU - fetal kidney, materanl urine, PCR

9

Brucella: Signs

abortion (after 5mo), weak calves, placentits

10

Bovine Brucella: Dx

signs, iso - fetal lung/abomasum, uterus, placenta

11

T/F: Bovine Brucella is reportable.

True

12

Bovine Mycoplasma/Ureaplasma: Signs

granular vulvovaginitis, salpingitis

13

What media is used to grow bovine campylobacter?

Clark's media (get sample with prepuce comb)

14

Bovine Tritrichomonas foetus: Dx

reverse stair pregnancy histogram, delayed return to estrus, iso - (get sample with prepuce comb)

15

IBR: Etiology

herpesvirus 1

16

IBR: Dx

IHC, FA

17

What is the greatest concern with BVDV?

Persistently Infected calves

18

BVDV: Signs

unthrifty, intermittent diarrhea, chronic respiratory dz
if any

19

BVDV: Dx

virus neutralization (-) 14d apart, virus (+) for 14d

20

Bovine Bluetongue: Etiology

orbivirus

21

Bovine Bluetongue: Transmission

culicoides

22

What plants are teratogenic?

locoweed, poison hemlock, lupines, tree tobaco

23

What plants cause abortions?

locoweed, nitrates, ponderosa pine, broomweed

24

What plants cause infertility?

locoweed, fescue

25

Poison Hemlock: Teratogenesis

crooked calf syndrome

26

Poison Hemlock: Time of Toxicicty

50-75d

27

Lupines: Teratogenesis

severe limb/spine deformities, cleft palate

28

Lupines: Time of Toxicity

40-70d

29

T/F: Lupines are teratogenic in all ruminants.

false
they're not teratogenic in small ruminants

30

Tobacco: Teratogenesis

arthrogryposis of forelimbs

31

Tobacco: Time of Toxicity

50-75d

32

Lupine: Toxins

anagyrine, ammodendrine

33

Locoweed: Toxin

swainsonine

34

Locoweed: Teratogenesis

hydrops/arthrogryposis

35

Ponderosa Pine: Toxin

isocupressic acid

36

Broomweed/Snakeweed: Toxins

esters, terpines, saponins

37

Fescue: Toxin

symbiotic fungus (Neotyphodium)

38

Nitrates: Sequelae

fetal hypoxia

39

What are Dropsical Conditions?

hydrallantois, hydamnios

40

Hyrdallantois: Etiology

Placental dysfunction => accumulation of allantoid fluid during 5-20d of last trimester

41

Hydamnios: Apperance

Fetal dysfunction => accumulation of amniotic fluid

42

Dropsical Conditions: Tx

abortion, slow drainage of fluid (over 24hr)

43

When is Progesterone production of Luteal origin?

first 150d of gestation

44

When does the uterus start producing progesterone?

Day 150-250

45

Induced Abortion: Drugs

prostaglandin, corticosteroids

46

Induced Abortion: Strategies - Cow

5-150d of gestation - single PGF => abortion in 5-7d (fertile 3-5d after)
150-240d of gestation - PGF + corticosteroids => abortion in 5d

47

Induced Parturition: Indications Bovine

severe udder edema, vaginal prolapse, abnormal pregnancy

48

Induced Parturition: Method Bovine

Dex/PGF => parturition in 2-3d

49

Bull Soundness Evaluation: Components

hx, PE, testes, genital tract (rectal palp), semen evaluation

50

Bull Soundness Exam: PE POI

not lame, good confirmation to mount, able to see, prepuce

51

Bull Soundness Exam: Testes POI

symmetric, non-painful, no lesions, circumfrance

52

Testes Circumference: Procedure

squeeze testes distally, measure at widest point

53

Bull Soundness Exam: Semen Evaluation POI

gross motility, progressive motility, morphology

54

Bull Soundness Exam: Semen Evaluations - Morphologic Abnormalities

primary defect - tesis origin
secondary defect - epidydimal defect

55

Penile Papilloma: Tx

sx removal

56

Penile Hair Ring: Etilogy

accumulation of body hair around penis

57

Persistent Frenulum: Etiology

incomplete separation of penis and prepuce => ventral deviation

58

Vesiculitis: Signs

painful when palpated, loss of lobulation

59

Epididymitis: Signs

early - swollen, painful
Late - small, hard misshapen

60

Estrous Cycle: Ewe Length

17d

61

Estrous Cycle: Doe Length

21d

62

Estrus Length: Ewe

30hr

63

Estrus Length: Doe

36hr

64

Gestation Length: Ewe

147d

65

Gestation Length: Doe

150d

66

Small Ruminants: Breeding Management

place teaser ram 14d prior, 2-4 rams/100 ewes

67

What is flushing in Small Ruminant breeding?

increased nutrient uptake weeks prior

68

Repro Manipulation: Small Ruminant Methods

CIDR, light manipulation, male effect

69

Small Ruminants: Pregnancy Dx

U/S - heartbeat @ 25d, placentomes @ 35d, skeleton @ 60d
x-ray - 50d

70

Ringwomb: Definition

failure of cervix to completely dilate

71

How long does the uterus take to involute in Small Ruminants?

30d

72

Pregnancy Toxemia: Small Ruminant - Timing

last trimester

73

Pregnancy Toxemia: Small Ruminant - Tx

remove fetus, glucose

74

Induce Parturition: Small Ruminant - Methods

Dexamethasone IM 141d => parturition w/in 36hr

75

Swine: Ideal Mammary System

10 functional teats, 3 pairs cranial to umbilicus,

76

Swine: Factors Affecting Puberty

age (5-8mo), wt (200-250), breed, season (long day), movement, mixing ages, boar effect

77

Swine: Estrous Length

21d polyestrous

78

Swine: Estrus Length

36-72hr

79

Swine: Ovulation Occurance

2/3 way through estrus

80

Swine: Estrus Signs

vulva swelling + discharge, vocalizing, lordosis response (back pressure test)

81

Swine: Synchronization Methods

all-in/all-out weaning - estrus occurs 4-7d post-weaning
alternagest - feed 14d, return to estrus 4-7d post withdrawl

82

What is the preferred semen collection method in swine?

gloved hand

83

Swine Sperm Evaluation: Parameters

color, opacity, odor, motility, concentration, morphology

84

Swine: Semen:Extender Ratio

1:4-10

85

Swine: Gestation Length

114d

86

How many embryos are needed to maintain pregnancy by day 11 in sows?

4

87

Swine: Pregnancy Dx

PGF2a concentration, progesterone, U/S, rads

88

Swine: Parturition Signs

restless, nesting, frequent urination + defication

89

T/F: Inducing parturition in swine is normal practice.

True
for all-in/all-out weaning synch, and to cross-foster piglets

90

Swine: Parturition Induction Method

prostaglandin, farrowing 18-36hr post

91

Swine: C-section Incision

upside-down T over ventral flank

92

Swine: Parturition Complications

prolapsed vagina/uterus/bladder, vulvar hematomas/tears, metritis

93

When does mummification usually occur with fetal death?

>35d

94

Swine: Non-infectious Infertility - Etiologies

hydrosalpinx, ovarian cysts

95

What dzs directly interfere with swine spermatogenesis?

brucella, chlamydia, rubulavirus

96

Swine: Lepto - Signs

mummified/macerated fetuses

97

Swine: Brucella - Lesions

granulomatous lesions in uterus, ovaries, testes, ASG, liver, kidney

98

What factor of Erysipelothrix infection causes abortion?

fever and septicemia

99

PRRS: Etiology

arterivirus

100

PRRS: Forms

reproductive failure - premature farrowing
post-weaning respiratory dz - dec gain, inc. mortality

101

PRRS: Dx

herd serology

102

Porcine Parvovirus: Signs

SMEDI, no signs in dam

103

Pseudorabies (Aujesky's): Etiology

herpesvirus

104

Pseudorabies: Signs

encephalities, repro failure, dec. litter size (based on age of infection)

105

What is Zearalenone?

toxin that causes signs of estrus

106

Canine: Time of Puberty

6-10mo

107

Canine: Length of Estrous

7mo

108

Interestrus Period: Definition

time from the beginning of one estrus to the beginning of the next

109

Canine: Vaginal Cytology Stages

parabasal -> small intermediate -> large intermediated -> cornified

110

Canine: Proestrus - Signs

vulvar swelling, bloody discharge, attracts but non-receptive

111

Canine: Proestrus - Cytology

inc. cornified epithelium, RBC, WBC, debris

112

Canine: Estrus - Signs

stands to be mounted, "winking" vulva, deviation of tail

113

Canine: Estrus - Cytology

cornified epithelium (50% anuclear), no debris/WBC

114

T/F: Progesterone rises after ovulation in the canine.

False
It starts to rise before ovulation

115

Canine: Diestrus - Signs

not accepting males

116

Canine: Diestrus - Cytology

parabasal cells, small intermediate cells

117

When does Ovulation occur in the canine?

day 3-4 of estrus

118

T/F: Dogs ovulate oocysts ready for fertilization.

False
they ovulate primary oocytes

119

Canine: Progesterone Evaluation - POI

2 = LH peak
5 = ovulation
>15 = confirmed ovulation

120

When do you breed the dog?

48 and 96hr post ovulation for natural/shipped
72hr post ovulation for frozen

121

What drugs are used for chemical ejaculation in the dog?

oxytocin, PGF2a

122

Canine Hormone Control: Ovaban - Drug

progestin

123

Canine Hormone Control: Ovaban - Purpose

prevent ovulation and pseudopregnancy

124

Canine Hormone Control: Regumate - Drug

progesterone

125

Canine Hormone Control: Regumate - Purpose

supplement during pregnancy

126

Canine Hormone Control: Progesterone Supplement - Side Effects

masculinization of female pups

127

Canine Hormone Control: Miborlerone - Drug

androgenic compound

128

Canine Estrus Control: Mibolerone - Purpose

long term contraceptive

129

Canine Hormone Control: Deslorelin - Drug

GnRH Analog

130

Canine Hormone Control: Deslorelin - Purpose

repro suppression (available for ferrets)

131

Canine Hormone Control: Mismating Shots - Drug

estrogen

132

Canine (and ferret) Estrogen Toxicity: Signs

irreversible bone marrow suppression

133

Canine Hormone Control: Prolactin Inhibitors - Drugs

bromocriptine (dopamine agonist), cabergoline (serotonin antagonist)

134

Canine Hormone Control: Prolactin Inhibitors - Purpose

lyse CL

135

Canine Induced Abortion: Methods

lutalyse, prolactin inhibitors, combo

136

Canine Induced Estrus: Methods

cabergoline

137

Episioplasty: Procedure

removal of excess skin around vulva

138

Canine: Brucella - Signs

placentitis => abortion
orchitis/epididymitis

139

Canine: Brucella - Tx

none for breeders

140

Canine: Brucella - Dx

culture, rapid slide agglutination test

141

Canine: Mycoplasma - Tx

doxycyclline

142

When is canine Herpesvirus most dangerous?

when the dam is infected 3wks pre- and post- partum

143

Canine: Herpesvirus - Signs

fading puppies (crying, greenish stool, abdominal pain)

144

Azoospermia: Definition

ejaculation w/o sperm

145

Azoospermia: Causes

incomplete ejaculation, intersex, bilateral cryptorchid, testes neoplasia

146

Priapism: Definition

persistent erection

147

When does a cat reach puberty?

1st February of life

148

Feline: Proestrus - Signs

inc. activity, vocalization, behavior change

149

Feline: Estrus - Signs

vocalization, rolling, allows mounting

150

Feline: Estrus - Length

3-16d

151

Feline: Post-Estrus - Definition

period between estrus periods if no ovulation

152

Feline: Length of Gestation

65d

153

Feline: Pregnancy Dx

U/S, relaxin (detectable @ d 25)

154

T/F: Feline Herpesvirus causes abortion.

true

155

Feline Panleukopenia Virus: Effects

Cerebellar hypoplasia