exam 1 Flashcards Preview

blood bank > exam 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in exam 1 Deck (110):
1

Who discovered the A, B, and O blood groups?

a. William Harvey 1628
b. Karl Landsteiner in 1901
c. Decastello and Sturli in 1902
d. Charles Drew
e. Gregor Mendel

B

2

who's work led to the establishment of blood banks?

a. William Harvey 1628
b. Karl Landsteiner in 1901
c. Decastello and Sturli in 1902
d. Charles Drew
e. Gregor Mendel

D

3

Who discovered the AB blood group?
a. William Harvey 1628
b. Karl Landsteiner in 1901
c. Decastello and Sturli in 1902
d. Charles Drew
e. Gregor Mendel

C

4

Who discovered the
circulation of blood?
a. William Harvey 1628
b. Karl Landsteiner in 1901
c. Decastello and Sturli in 1902
d. Charles Drew
e. Gregor Mendel

A

5

(T/F) Mendel's Law of Genetics applies to all sexually
reproducing diploid organisms

true

6

Who's work on ABO group distribution lead to the discovery of population genetics?
a. Mendel
b. Hardy and Weinberg
c. Hirszfeld and Hirszfeld

C

7

____ is the study of gene distribution by looking at how the genotypes and frequency of the genes are maintained or changed

Population Genetics

8

(T/F) Change in frequencies per blood group system are frequent over a few generations

false

they are rare

9

which of the ff is not a main cause for gene frequency change?
a. Mutation
b. Natural selection
c. Genetic drift
d. Linkage equilibrium

none of the above :)

10

___ is the change in the hereditary material

Mutation

11

___ a type of mutation where individual gene by substitution or alteration of single nucleotide pairs in the DNA

point mutation

12

___ a type of mutation that includes deletion and inversion of genes

Chromosomal

13

___ is a changed gene appears in significant numbers in a population. The change results in an advantage over the carriers of the unchanged gene

Natural Selection

14

(T/F) in a Genetic Drift, if the population remains small a drift of gene frequency will occur compared to the larger population of their origin

true

15

(T/F) in linkage equilibrium, a population disturbed by selection all possible combination of linked genes
should be present at equal frequencies

false

only applies when the population is UNdisturbed

16

____ are non-random
association of alleles at two or more loci

Linkage Disequilibrium

17

phenotype frequencies is determined by testing red blood cells (RBCs) from a large random sample of persons from a different ethnicity

false

in the same ethnicity

18

_, _, _, _, _ are the major Rh antigens

D, C and c, E and e

19

how many possible haplotypes are possible for the Rh blood group?
a. 5
b. 3
c.8
d.6

C

20

(T/F) D+ is the most common phenotype in the causcatian population

true

21

the scientists who noted the mechanism behind the disease hemolytic disease of the newborn
a. Landsteiner and Weiner
b. Levine and Stetson
c. Fisher-Race
d. Rosenfield

B

named the ab as anti-D

22

the most immunogenic antigen
a. A
b. B
c. O
d. D

D

23

(T/F) Anti-D will cause a hemolytic transfusion reaction if D+ blood is transfused to an individual who has D- RBCs in her/his circulation

true

24

(T/F) HDFN most likely to result from pregnancy if the fetus is D-

false

HDFN = baby is D+ and mom D- (will make ab)

25

which of the ff is most commonly used in identifying the blood group systems?
a. Weiner system
b. Fisher-Race
c. ISBT
d. Rosenfield

C

26

which of the ff is false?
a. DCe = R1
b. DcE = R2
c. DCE = RZ
d. DCE = R0

D

0 = ce
z = CE

27

which of the ff is false?
a. dCe = r’
b. dcE = r’’
c. dCE = ry
d. dce = r

none :)

28

*in which chromosome is the Rh genes located?
a. 9
b. 12
c. 1
d. 6

C

29

____ the gene that encodes protein that carries the major antigen D

RHD

30

_____ the gene that encodes protein that carries the CcEe antigens

RHCE

31

___ the gene that encodes Rh-associated glycoprotein (RhAG)

RHAG

32

(T/F) Rh antigens like the ABO antigens, are are found on other cells

false

on RBCs only

33

(T/F) the RHD and RHCE genes are closely linked and are almost identical

true

34

RHAG is required for the Rh antigen to be expressed as is said to be a ___

coexpressor

35

(T/F) the lack of RHAG leads to an Rh null phenotype

true

36

(T/F) D neg individuals are always transfused with D neg blood to avoid immunization

true

37

*____ a mechanism for weak D phenotye; when the D gene codes for fewer antigenic sites

genetic weak D

38

*____ a mechanism for weak D phenotye; when C is in trans w/ respect to D (Dce/dCE)

Position/gene interaction effect

39

*(T/F) Weak D phenotype is considered D+ as a recepient but D- as a donor

false

D+ as both donor and recepient

40

____ when the D antigen is a mosaic where RBCs type D+ with some reagents and not with others

Partial D phenotype

41

(T/F) individuals with partial D phenotype may make anti-D if transfused with D+ RBCs or in response to pregnancy

true

42

which of the ff class of antibodies does Rh ab belong to?
a. IgG
b. IgA
c. IgM
d. IgE

A

43

___ the method used to detect IgG ab

IAT - indirect antiglobulin test

enzymes used: papain, ficin

44

(T/F) Rh ab can activate complement response

false

it does not!

45

(T/F) the D antigen is well developed at birth

true

46

*(T/F) D negative individuals are nearly always given D negative RBCs regardless of whether they have anti-D or not

true

47

*in which chromosome is the ABO genes located?
a. 9
b. 19
c. 1
d. 6

A

48

(T/F) ABO antigens are proteins while the antibodies are carbohydrates

false

ag = carb
ab = protein

49

(T/F) ABO ag are defined serologically by an alloantibody

true

50

(T/F) the development of ABO is a result of the interactions between 2 genes : ABO and Hh

false

3 genes = ABO, Hh and secretor (Se)

51

the gene that codes for the enzyme α-3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
a. H gene
b. A gene
c. B gene
d. O gene

B

52

the gene that codes for the enzyme α-3-D-galactosyltransferase
a. H gene
b. A gene
c. B gene
d. O gene

C

53

which of the ff has the highest amount of H antigent present in the cells?
a. A2
b. A1B
c. B
d. O

D


O > A2 > B > A2B > A1 > A1B

54

how many possible genotypes can the ABO genes produce?
a. 2
b. 3
c. 6
d. 4

C

55

(T/F) ABO antigens are found on the membranes of most cells of the body and in secretions

true

56

the gene that codes for the enzyme α-2-L-fucosyltransferase
a. H gene
b. A gene
c. B gene
d. O gene

A

57

(T/F) ABO antigens are fully developed at birth

false

develops around 3-6 mos

58

*in which chromosome is the H gene located?
a. 9
b. 19
c. 1
d. 6

B

59

(T/F) the H antigen is inherited independent of the
ABO antigens

true

60

which of the ff class of antibodies does ABO ab belong to?
a. IgG
b. IgA
c. IgM
d. IgE

C

61

*(T/F) the ABO ab reacts at warm temperatures

false

in cold temp!

62

___ typing of RBC

Forward/Front/Cell
typing

63

____ Typing of plasma/serum

Reverse/back typing

64

___ anti-A reagent that classifies the A subtype

Dolichos biflorus (Lectin)

65

which of the ff is false about the bombay phenotype?
a. RBCs forward type as group O
b. anti-A, -B, - A,B and –H are present
in the plasma/serum
c. inherits the Hh gene
d. does not have the substrate for ABO genes

C

inherits hh gene

66

(T/F) Bombay individuals can only receive blood from
another person with the Bombay phenotype

true

67

which of the ff is not a possible source of ABO discrepancies?
a. unexpected ab are present in plasma
b. missing antigens in cells
c. cross reaction with new antigens
d. modification of antigens by bacterial enzymes

none :)

all are sources of discrepancies

68

which of the ff is false?
a. there are four basic transmission patterns
b. a phenotype appears in every generation in an autosomal dominant inheritance
c. 25% of siblings are affected in a autosomal recessive
inheritance
d. Females & males are likely to be equally
affected in an X-linked inheritance

D


X-linked = males only
autosomal = males and females, equal

69

(T/F) in an autosomal dominant inheritance, 50% of the affected person’s offspring have the characteristic

true

70

(T/F) in an autosomal recessive inheritance, a trait is seen in siblings, parents and other relatives

false

siblings only, not in parents or other relative

71

which of the ff is NOT true?
a. A much higher incidence of the X-linked recessive trait is seen in males
b. Sons of affected males do not inherit the X-linked trait
c. Carrier females transmit the X-linked recessive trait to all their daughters
d. X-linked inheritance are determined by genes on the X chromosome

C

transmitted to 50% of daughters and 50% of sons

72

_____ the study of the structure, hereditary
transmission and variation at the molecular level

molecular genetics

73

____ alleles from a group of closely linked genes that are inherited together

Haplotype

74

____ traits of both alleles are expressed but the effect of one allele is stronger

Incomplete dominance

75

(T/F) acquired immunity is the body's 3rd line of defense

true

76

which of the ff is false about the fc (constant) region of Igs?
a. involved in complement activation
b. IgE and IgMs are most impt in BB
c. binding site for macs and monos
d. all have kappa or lambda light chains

B

IgG, IgM and IgA are most impt

77

which of the ff is false?
a. IgMs bind at body temp
b. IgGs are involved in extravascular hemolysis
c. IgM are involved in intravascular hemolysis
d. IgGs have 2 Fab sites

A

IgM = ambient or cold temp
IgG = body temp

78

which of the ff is false?
a. primary ab produces small
amount of antibody
b. primary ab response requires large ag dose
c. secondary ab response requires large ag dose
d. secondary ab response produces large amount of ab

C

1 = large ag dose
2 = small ag dose

79

(T/F) primary and secondary ab response produces both IgM and IgG

false

1 = IgM and IgG
2 = mostly IgG

80

______ Measurement of electrostatic repulsion between red cells

Zeta Potential

81

(T/F) the smaller the zeta potential the greater the agglutination of RBCs

true

82

(T/F) anti-A ab are IgMs while anti-D are IgGs

true

83

which of the complement system pathways is activated by ab bound to RBCs?
a. Classical pathway
b. Lectin pathway
c. Alternative pathway

A

84

which of the complement system pathways involves the innate immunity?
a. Classical pathway
b. Lectin pathway
c. Alternative pathway

C

85

____ is the product of a gene; the physical expression of a gene

phenotype

86

___ the inheritance of two identical alleles

homozygous

87

______ genes that hasveno detectable effect except when present in the homozygous

Amorph or silent gene

88

_____ are alleles from a group of closely linked genes that are inherited together

Haplotype

89

(T/F) the inherited trait can be expressed codominantly whether the allele is
heterozygous or homozygous

true

90

_____the study of/defines antigens by their specific antibodies

immunology

91

____ the region in an immunoglobulin that binds to the antigens

Fragment antigen binding site (Fab)

92

(T/F)The greatest number of D antigen sites are on cells of the rare Rh phenotype D--

true

93

(T/F) R2R2 cells possess the largest number of D antigen sites

true

94

(T/F) during sensitization, IgG Rh antibodies are formed initially, followed by a transition to IgM

false

IgM first, then IgG. think about prim and secondary immune response

95

(T/F) The A gene tends to elicit higher concentrations of transferase than the B gene

true

96

(T/F) L-fucose must be formed for the other sugars (of other blood groups) to be attached

true

97

(T/F) inheritance of hh genes still leads to the addition of L-fucose to the type 2 chain but no H substance is express in the cells

false

*hh= no enzyme = no L-fucose = no H substance

98

____ is the enzyme encoded by the amorph O gene

O-transferase

99

(T/F) Inheritance of an A2 gene
elicits production of HIGH concentrations of the enzyme -3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, which converts almost all of the H precursor structure to A1 antigens on the RBCs.

false

this applies to A1

100

(T/F) the bombay anti-H is an IgM antibody

true

101

(T/F) the bombay anti-H is an IgG antibody

false

102

(T/F) Rh system it is a non glycosylated protien (no carbs attached)

true

103

(T/F) soluble antigens are found in secretions and are mainly in glycoprotein form

true

104

(T/F) the RHD and RHCE genes encode for proteins that carry thier respective antigens

true

105

(T/F) ppl with Rh(mod) genes have greatly amounts of Rh antigens

false

greatly REDUCED Rh antigens

106

_____ are enzymes that are used to greatly enhance the detection of IgGs in IAT

ficin, papain

107

____ an example of extravascular destruction caused by IgGs crossing the placenta

hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN)

108

which of the ff is not a function of the complement system?
a. cell lysis
b. antigen clearance
c. vasoconstriction
d. opsonization
e. promote plt aggregation

C

vasodilation

109

which of the ff does not a factor that affects agglutination reactions?
a. zeta potential
b. antibody class and concentration
c. antigen density and concentration
d. temperature

D

temp, ionic strength and pH affect sensitization

110

_____ aka B-cell immunity

humoral immunity