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Flashcards in exam 2- serologic techniques Deck (45):
1

____ the immunoglobulin that is usually responsible for direct agglutination

IgM

2

(T/F) Immunohematology relies mainly on hemagglutination
between antigens and antibodies

true

3

______ a result of antibody combining with antigen reaction

Direct agglutination

4

_____ test used to detect antibodies bound to RBCs in vivo and in vitro aka Coombs test

Antiglobulin test

5

____ scientists who showed that red cells can combine with antibody without being sensitized

Coombs, Mourant and Race (1945)

6

*____ is formed when an AHG reagent is added to IgG coated RBCs

lattice

7

(T/F) anti-IgG reacts with human globulin on RBCs or free in plasma/serum

true

8

____ an Antiglobulin test that detects antibody bound to RBCs in vivo

direct antiglobulin test (DAT)

9

the following are clinical basis of performing DAT except:
a. autoimmune hemolytic anemia
b. drug-induced hemolytic anemia
c. hemolytic disease of the newborn
d. hemolytic transfusion reaction

none of the above :)

all are valid reasons to perform DAT

10

(T/F) DAT can specify whether the detected ag is in RBCs or plasma

false

11

____ an antiglobulin test that detects in vitro sensitization of RBCs

Indirect antiglobulin test

12

(T/F) IAT can detect both antibody bound to RBCs and free ab in plasma

true

13

the ff are applications of IAT except:
a. antibody identification
b. crossmatch
c. extended antigen typing
d. weak D test

all are IAT applications

14

(T/F) AHG reagent contains both anti-IgG and anti-IgM

false

IgG only

15

(T/F) DAT is a one step test while IAT is two-step

true

16

which of the ff AHG reagents contains both anti-IgG and
anti-complement?
a. polyclonal
b. polyspecific
c. monoclonal
d. monospecific

B

17

which of the ff AHG reagents contains multiple cell lines with different
specificities ?
a. polyclonal
b. polyspecific
c. monoclonal
d. monospecific

A

18

which of the ff AHG reagents contains either
anti-IgG or anti-complement?
a. polyclonal
b. polyspecific
c. monoclonal
d. monospecific

D

19

which of the ff AHG reagents contains an antibody specificity?
a. polyclonal
b. polyspecific
c. monoclonal
d. monospecific

C

20

at which step of IAT does ab molecules are allowed to attach to RBC antigens?
a. Incubation of RBCs with serum/antiserum
b. washing step
c. addition of AHG reagent
d. centrifugation

A

21

at which step of IAT does is agglutination sped up?
a. Incubation of RBCs with serum/antiserum
b. washing step
c. addition of AHG reagent
d. centrifugation

D

forcing cells to get closer

22

(T/F) check cells or sensitized RBCs is a confirming step that checks if AHG is not neutralized by free globulins

true

23

_____ is the component of AHG reagent

anti-IgG

24

_____ are substances added to the IAT reaction to enhance/ increase sensitivity of the method

Potentiators

25

which of the ff is not a potentiator?
a. Bovine serum albumin
b. LISS
c . PEG
d. PEG

none of the above

26

____ a potentiator that enables RBCs coated with antibody to get closer together by disrupting repulsion forces between them

albumin

27

____ a potentiator that removes water concentration from the antibodies and increases ab uptake by RBCs?

Polyethylene glycol (PEG)

28

which of the ff potentiators is good at detecting Rh antibodies?
a. Bovine serum albumin
b. LISS
c. proteolytic enzymes
d. PEG

A

29

which of the ff potentiators contain macromolecules and enhances antibody uptake?
a. Bovine serum albumin
b. LISS
c. proteolytic enzymes
d. PEG

B

30

(T/F) PEG increases the detection of clinically important antibodies

true

31

_____ are enzymes used in blood banking (3)

Bromelin (pinya), ficin (figs) and papain (papaya)

32

(T/F) enzyme use is done routinely in the lab

false

coz some ag are destroyed

33

(T/F) Enzyme treated RBCs are useful in sorting out mixtures of antibodies

true

34

which of the ff is NOT true about the action of proteolytic enzymes?
a. Enzymes cut negatively charged sialic acid molecules from polysaccharide side chains reducing RBC surface charge
b. can be used alone for antibody investigation
c. anti-Jka, Jkb and Rh are enhanced
d. destroys antigens MNSs, FYa, FYb and Xg

B

35

which of the ff are NOT possible sources of error in AHG testing?
a. Delay in adding/ reading the AHG (anti-IgG)
b. inadequate/excessive washing
c. failure to add AHG reagent
d. inactive AHG reagent

all are sources of error :)

36

(T/F) DAT positive cells can be used in IAT

false

cant do this coz in DAT, ab is already bound to RBCs = will get false pos result

37

____ an automated test technique used in DAT and IAT where glass beads or gel are used to “trap” agglutinated RBCs

Column Agglutination

38

(T/F) in column agglutination technique, Antibody coated cells are pelleted to the bottom of the column/ microtube while non-coated cells react with the AHG in gel column

false

the other way around

ab coated cells = rxn w/ AHG
non coated = pelleted

39

____ an automated test technique used in DAT and IAT; uses test tubes or microplates to immobilize and detect ag-ab rxns

solid-phase testing

40

(T/F) in a direct solid phase testing, RBCs or RBC membrance are attached to the microplate wells while in indirect test, the antibodies are in the wells

false

the other way around

direct: ab in well, add RBC
indirect: RBC in well, plasma/serum is added

41

(T/F) a positive solid phase testing is an appearance of a button in the well

false

direct phase neg rxn

42

____ is used in solid phase reactions; this is attached to the microplate wells and can bind IgGs

protein A

43

_____ information system interface in the lab

LIS - lab information system

44

____ testing patient or donor plasma/serum for
atypical/unexpected antibodies

antibody screen

45

(T/F) in ab screening the patient's RBCs are tested using donor plasma

false

patient serum tested on donor RBC with known phenotype