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1

Define "Ethics"

The study of choices

2

What is ethical thinking and ethical action?

`Taking care of the basic needs and legitimate expectations of others, as well as our own

3

Normative Statement

A normative judgment is one that states some value or evaluative rule as a standard of other judgments, or applies such a value or rule to specific cases.

4

Descriptive Statement

A descriptive judgment makes an assertion that is offered as a statement of the facts that pertain in reality.

5

describe the origin of the word "Philosophy"

comes from the Greek "love of wisdom"

Phil= love Sophia= wisdom

6

Ethical Avoidance Disorders

Common pitfalls people stumble into when forced with ethical thinking

7

Flying by Instinct

Relying on gut feelings

using instincts and doing what is easy or familiar

8

Offhand self justification

Thinking as little as possible

9

Dogmatism

No other view is right besides your own.

Your argument rests on asserting that you're right

10

Psychological Egoism

The view that everyone is selfish, and everything we do is to better ourselves

11

Relativism

Any moral opinion is better than any other

12

Martin Buber

"I and thou" vs "I and It"

focuses on relationships with others and focusing on others as ends rather than means

13

Emmanuel Kant

-Only unconditional value is good will

-Maxim= principle of action

-preform from the motive of duty

14

Utilitarianism

Relies on the principle of unity

-Act always in such a way that you maximize the pleasure of everyone

-founded by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill

15

Kantianism

persons are "ends" rather than "means"

16

Categorical Imperative

Always act as to treat humanity, whether in yourself or in another as an end and never as a means

act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it become a universal law

17

the principle of utility

The principle of utility determines the rightness
of acts (or rules of action?) by their effect on the
total happiness.

18

Consequentialist theory

a moral theory is consequentialist if it is most concerned with what the outcomes are

19

4 Key parts of Utilitarianism

Maximize
Pleasure
Everyone involved
Look at long term consequences

20

Utilitarian Calculus

adding up total values and assigning possible outcomes

21

Problems with measuring values

Problem of the future- must be sure about consequences

Willing to Sacrifice minority- Majority > Minority

Measurement problem- no way to measure pleasure

Swine Objection- life of human is no better than the life of an animal

22

Mill's Higher Pleasures and Lower Pleasures

higher pleasures are better than lower pleasures.

it is better to be a dissatisfied socrates than a satisfied fool

23

basic idea of virtue ethics

A person who has acquired the proper set of dispositions will do what is right when faced with a situation involving a moral choice

24

Characteristics of Virtue Ethics

ethics of virtue encompasses those moral values concerned with character:

honesty, loyalty, respect

25

A Greek view of virtue

according to aristotle, rational self-regulation is the characteristic activity and therefore the "function" of of humans

26

"Am I Blue?"

Alice Walker

about treating animals as equals

Neighbors get a horse, then they bring in a horse to breed with it, then take the breeding horse away, the horse is sad and upset

27

"XYLO"

Rayna Rapp

about a painful abortion choice

focuses on the complexity of ethical choices

XY= unkown sex of the baby
LO= love the parents gave to the baby

28

"Bloodties: Nature, Culture and the Hunt"

Ted Kerasote`

if you hunt and eat prey in a non wasteful manner, you are doing less damage to the environment than shopping at a supermarket

29

"Le Chambon"

Phillip Hallie

about the opposite of cruelty is not the absence of cruelty, but the presence of something positive: hospitality

The french village of Le Chambon saved 6000 jewish people from dying in the holocaust.

30

"Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals"

Emmanuel Kant

treating people as an end rather than a means to an end