Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (40)
The study of choices
What is ethical thinking and ethical action?
`Taking care of the basic needs and legitimate expectations of others, as well as our own
A normative judgment is one that states some value or evaluative rule as a standard of other judgments, or applies such a value or rule to specific cases.
A descriptive judgment makes an assertion that is offered as a statement of the facts that pertain in reality.
describe the origin of the word "Philosophy"
comes from the Greek "love of wisdom"
Phil= love Sophia= wisdom
Ethical Avoidance Disorders
Common pitfalls people stumble into when forced with ethical thinking
Flying by Instinct
Relying on gut feelings
using instincts and doing what is easy or familiar
Offhand self justification
Thinking as little as possible
No other view is right besides your own.
Your argument rests on asserting that you're right
The view that everyone is selfish, and everything we do is to better ourselves
Any moral opinion is better than any other
"I and thou" vs "I and It"
focuses on relationships with others and focusing on others as ends rather than means
-Only unconditional value is good will
-Maxim= principle of action
-preform from the motive of duty
Relies on the principle of unity
-Act always in such a way that you maximize the pleasure of everyone
-founded by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill
persons are "ends" rather than "means"
Always act as to treat humanity, whether in yourself or in another as an end and never as a means
act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it become a universal law
the principle of utility
The principle of utility determines the rightness
of acts (or rules of action?) by their effect on the
a moral theory is consequentialist if it is most concerned with what the outcomes are
4 Key parts of Utilitarianism
Look at long term consequences
adding up total values and assigning possible outcomes
Problems with measuring values
Problem of the future- must be sure about consequences
Willing to Sacrifice minority- Majority > Minority
Measurement problem- no way to measure pleasure
Swine Objection- life of human is no better than the life of an animal
Mill's Higher Pleasures and Lower Pleasures
higher pleasures are better than lower pleasures.
it is better to be a dissatisfied socrates than a satisfied fool
basic idea of virtue ethics
A person who has acquired the proper set of dispositions will do what is right when faced with a situation involving a moral choice
Characteristics of Virtue Ethics
ethics of virtue encompasses those moral values concerned with character:
honesty, loyalty, respect
A Greek view of virtue
according to aristotle, rational self-regulation is the characteristic activity and therefore the "function" of of humans
"Am I Blue?"
about treating animals as equals
Neighbors get a horse, then they bring in a horse to breed with it, then take the breeding horse away, the horse is sad and upset
about a painful abortion choice
focuses on the complexity of ethical choices
XY= unkown sex of the baby
LO= love the parents gave to the baby
"Bloodties: Nature, Culture and the Hunt"
if you hunt and eat prey in a non wasteful manner, you are doing less damage to the environment than shopping at a supermarket
about the opposite of cruelty is not the absence of cruelty, but the presence of something positive: hospitality
The french village of Le Chambon saved 6000 jewish people from dying in the holocaust.