Flashcards in Final (From Review) ---Study First Deck (48)
"what is best and most pleasurable for all, is a life according to reason"
"Tao Te Ching"
"The simple life"- profit ignored, cleverness abandoned, selfishness minimized, desires reduced.
life without order rather than order without life
"the way, path"
"bring more of yourself, decrease suffering, nurture common life"
"how to win ourselves freedom of mind"
accounts her duties as a wife and mother,
"contrasts with an ethic of rational princple"
"The Moral Foundations of an African Culture"
community is always particular
family and communal relations
culture of west africa
conception of persons
"The Land Ethic"
human community rooted in the ground they inhabit
"take care of soil, animals, land"
land is to be loved and respected
"Famine, Affluence, and Morality"
"if more people do nothing, we feel less obligated to do something"
"War and Massacre"
"Utilitarianism and Absolutism"
"Can we talk? Understanding the 'Other Side' in the Animal Rights Debate"
unapologetic animal rights sympathizer
"what are old people for?"
aging should be a revered process, the elderly should be celebrated
"Design for a New World"
ethically designing buildings and industrial construction
the rightness or wrongness of actions does not depend on their consequences but on whether they fulfill our duty
An obligation that applies to us regardless of other goals or situations
What is the test of the Categorical Imperative?
act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it be a universal law.
What are two formulations of the Categorical Imperative?
1) act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it be a universal law.
2) End, rather than means to an end
How does Kant's theory differ from Utilitarianism?
Utilitarians believe we should act based on consequence, Kant believes we should act based on whether or not the action fulfills our duty
The Principle of Utility-
actions or behaviors are right in so far as they promote happiness or pleasure, wrong as they tend to produce unhappiness or pain
Objections to Utilitarianism
Problem of the Future- we can never be sure about consequences
Willing to Sacrifice Minority- Majority > Minority
Measurement Problem- no way to measure pleasure
Swine Objection- human life is no better than animal life
Mill's Higher Pleasures and Lower Pleasures
Not all pleasures are equal
A person who has acquired the proper set of dispositions will do what is right when faced with a situation involving a moral choice
Characteristics of Virtue Ethics
Goal--> Habit--> better life
Always a chief end
Greek View of Virtue-
Helps us fulfill our function
-Avoid excess and avoid defects
Virtue of Character is a mean between excess and deficiency
A fundamental Ethical value. When dealing with a moral problem, one must attend with care and concern to the complexities and particularities of the individuals involved in order to fully understand what is needed.
Ethics and Community-
relationships and the bonds between others are primary
many moral obligations arise out of relationships
Peter Singer's conclusion
if people do nothing, we feel less obligated to do something
Weak version of Singer's Principle
Anything morally significant
Strong version of Singer's Principle
Anything of comparable moral importance