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Flashcards in Final (From Review) ---Study First Deck (48)
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1

"Nichomachean Ethics"

Aristotle

"what is best and most pleasurable for all, is a life according to reason"

2

"Tao Te Ching"

Lao Tsu

"The simple life"- profit ignored, cleverness abandoned, selfishness minimized, desires reduced.

life without order rather than order without life

"the way, path"

3

"Living Large"

John Sullivan

"bring more of yourself, decrease suffering, nurture common life"

"how to win ourselves freedom of mind"

response-ability

4

"Caring"

Nel Noddings

accounts her duties as a wife and mother,

"contrasts with an ethic of rational princple"

feminist

5

"The Moral Foundations of an African Culture"

Kwasi Wiredu

community is always particular

family and communal relations

culture of west africa

Akan people

conception of persons

6

"The Land Ethic"

Aldo Leopold

human community rooted in the ground they inhabit

"take care of soil, animals, land"

land is to be loved and respected

7

"Famine, Affluence, and Morality"

Peter Singer

"if more people do nothing, we feel less obligated to do something"

8

"War and Massacre"

Thomas Nagel

"Utilitarianism and Absolutism"

9

"Can we talk? Understanding the 'Other Side' in the Animal Rights Debate"

Roger Gottlieb

unapologetic animal rights sympathizer

10

"what are old people for?"

Bill Thomas

aging should be a revered process, the elderly should be celebrated

11

"Design for a New World"

William McDonough

ethically designing buildings and industrial construction

new approach

12

Immanuel Kant

the rightness or wrongness of actions does not depend on their consequences but on whether they fulfill our duty

categorical imperative

13

Maxim-

Rule

14

Categorical Imperative-

An obligation that applies to us regardless of other goals or situations

15

What is the test of the Categorical Imperative?

act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it be a universal law.

16

What are two formulations of the Categorical Imperative?

1) act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it be a universal law.

2) End, rather than means to an end

17

How does Kant's theory differ from Utilitarianism?

Utilitarians believe we should act based on consequence, Kant believes we should act based on whether or not the action fulfills our duty

18

The Principle of Utility-

actions or behaviors are right in so far as they promote happiness or pleasure, wrong as they tend to produce unhappiness or pain

19

Objections to Utilitarianism

Problem of the Future- we can never be sure about consequences

Willing to Sacrifice Minority- Majority > Minority

Measurement Problem- no way to measure pleasure

Swine Objection- human life is no better than animal life

20

Mill's Higher Pleasures and Lower Pleasures

Not all pleasures are equal

21

Virtue Ethics-

A person who has acquired the proper set of dispositions will do what is right when faced with a situation involving a moral choice

22

Characteristics of Virtue Ethics

Goal--> Habit--> better life

Always a chief end

23

Greek View of Virtue-

Helps us fulfill our function

-Avoid excess and avoid defects

24

Cultivating Virtue-

Virtue of Character is a mean between excess and deficiency

25

Care Ethics

A fundamental Ethical value. When dealing with a moral problem, one must attend with care and concern to the complexities and particularities of the individuals involved in order to fully understand what is needed.

26

Ethics and Community-

relationships and the bonds between others are primary

many moral obligations arise out of relationships

27

Peter Singer's conclusion

if people do nothing, we feel less obligated to do something

28

Weak version of Singer's Principle

Anything morally significant

29

Strong version of Singer's Principle

Anything of comparable moral importance

30

Objections to Singer's Principle

Distance, Proximity, confusion