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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (92):
1

True/False. Prokaryotic cells are animal cells and Eukaryotic cells and bacterial cells.

False. Prokayotic = Bacterial and Eukaryotic = Animal

2

What are the four things that both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells have in common?

1. Cell membrane
2. Cytoplasm
3. DNA
4. Ribosomes

3

True/False. Prokayotic cells don't have a nucleus or membrane-enclosed organelles and Eukaryotic cells do.

True.

4

What are the three main groups of the cytoplasm?

1. Macromolecules: proteins, mRNA and tRNA
2. Small molecules: energy sources, precursors of macromolecules, metabolites or vitamins
3. Various inorganic ions required for enzymatic activity

5

What is the role of the cytoplasm?

Helps to facilitate chemical reactions and dissolve solutes, and it contains the nucleoid and ribosomes

6

Which of the following are found within the nucleoid?

a. DNA
b. RNA
c. Proteins
d. All the above

d. All the above

7

The ____ is a complete set of DNA including all essential genes.

Bacterial genome

8

What proteins compact the nucleoid?

-Nucleoid Associated proteins bound to DNA
-Supercoiling by DNA gyrase and topoisomerase I

9

What is a base pair?

One pair of nucleotide bases that connect the complementary strands of DNA

10

Which of the following is false in regards to a plasmid?

a. Circular molecule of DNA that replicates separately from the chromosome
b. Not part of the nucleoid
c. Essential under normal conditions
d. Each plasmid has a defined copy number regulated by the plasmid

c. Essential under normal conditions

-Its NOT essential under normal conditions

11

What is important about plasmids?

They often contain genes associated with causing disease (virulence factors) or to survive in presence of antibiotics and other toxic compounds (resistance genes)

12

What is a conjugative plasmid?

When plasmids can transfer cell to cell

13

What is found within the bacterial envelope?

-Cytoplasmic Membrane
-Cell wall (peptidoglycan layer)
-Periplasmic Space
-Outer membrane (gram-negative bacteria)
-Capsule (some bacteria)
-Envelope associated: Pili/Fimbriae, flagella, secretion systems

14

What are the functions of the bacterial envelope?

-Protects cell from environment or host
-Packages internal components
-Provides structural rigidity
-Produces energy
-Facilitates uptake of nutrients and efflux of toxic substances

15

What can only some envelope associated components do?

-Enable adhesion to surface or motility
-Provide resistance to some antibiotics or detergents
-Enable bacterial mating (conjugation)

16

____ bacteria have a thin layer of peptidoglycan in the periplasmic space while ___ bacteria have a thick layer of peptidoglycan.

Gram- negative, Gram-positive

17

Which bacteria contains teichoic acids attached to the peptidoglycan and which have lipopolysaccharides in the outer membrane?

Gram-positive have Teichoic
Gram-negative have LPS

18

The cytoplasmic membrane is composed of ____ and ____.

phospholipid bilayer and proteins

19

Which part of the phospholipid bilayer is attracted to water and which is not attracted to water?

head "loves" water (hydrophilic)
tail "fears" water (hydrophobic)

20

True/False. Only hydrophilic compounds can enter the cell by passive diffusion across the bilayer.

False. Only HYDROPHOBIC

21

What proteins are located within the cytoplasmic membrane?

-Transport proteins
-Energy generating and Electron transport chain components: require ATP synthase
-Proteins that function as anchors or help assemble external structures

22

The cytoplasmic membrane functions as a _____ barrier, where transport proteins mediate passage of hydrophilic substances in and out of cell

Selective permeability barrier

23

Which of the following allows for small hydrophilic molecules to passively enter the cell?

a. Transporter proteins
b. Porin proteins
c. Aquaporins
d. All the above

b. Porin proteins

24

What is the importance of the capsule?

-Help bacteria evade immune system by preventing engulfment
-Aids in attachment to some surfaces
-Increased tolerance to antimicrobial agents

25

____ is a surface component involved in bacterial conjugation.

Sex pilus

26

Which of the following are considered surface projections?

a. Flagella
b. Pili/Fimbriae
c. Secretion Systems
d. All the above

d. All the above

27

When ___ enters a host, it can revert to its active state, multiply, and cause disease.

Endospore

28

What is able to live in extreme conditions?

Extremophiles

29

True/False. An obligate symbiont cannot live without a host and facultative symbionts live together but they can live without a host as well.

True

30

____ can be carried but it doesn't always cause harm, unless under certain conditions like stress.

Facultative pathogenic

31

True/False. Eukarytoes replicate through binary fission and Prokayotes replicate through mitosis.

False. Prokayotes = binary fission and Eukaryoties = Mitosis

32

True/False. Genus is capital and italic, Species and Subspecies are italic, and Serovar is not italic but its capital.

True.

33

What is the definition of Commensalism?

Good for one, no problem for the other

34

____ are necessary and the relation is positive for both while ____ takes advantage of the other.

Mutualism, Parasitism

35

True/False. Flagella is mainly found within gram-negative bacteria.

True

36

What are the virulence factors of a capsule?

-Colonization
-Invasion
-Adhesion
-Protection against: phagocytosis, and complement

37

_____ antigen is a capsular antigen.

K-antigen

38

Which of the following is true regarding exotoxins?

a. Bacterial metabolites
b. Proteins with high molecular weight
c. Types I, II, III
d. All the above are true

d. All the above are true

39

What are type I exotoxins?

-Bind receptor
-Disturb cell metabolism

40

Type ___ exotoxins damage the cell wall and type ___ are intracellular toxins with an A and B component.

II, III

41

What are the two components of Type III exotoxins?

A component: goes IC
B (binding) component: binds to membrane

42

Which of the following is true regarding gram negative endotoxins?

a. Cell wall components
b. Cause a lot of damage
c. Cause immune reactions
d. All the above

d. All the above

43

True/False. Gram negative endotoxins have an LPS that is stable to heat, and can cause cardiovascular shock.

True

44

What is the function of LPS?

Protect against: toxic products, role in complement
Act as endotoxin

45

Toxins cell wall Gram-positive

Lipoteichoid acid (LTA)
Lipoarabinomannan (Mycobacteria) (LAM)
Peptidoglygan

46

What are obligate aerobes?

Need oxygen to grow and will be found more concentrated on the top of the tube.

47

What are facultative anaerobes?

Grow better with oxygen but they can also grow without it.

48

____ is a uniform growth throughout the tube and they don't use oxygen but it won't hurt them if they have it around whereas _____ only grow in the absence of oxygen.

Aerotolerant anaerobes, Obligate anaerobes

49

What is the traditional approach of herd health management?

Treating sick animals, mainly medical management and less preventative

50

What is the new herd health management approach used today?

Optimize health, welfare and production in a population of animals

51

What is the definition of latent period?

Latent period: microbe is replicating but not yet enough for the host to become infectious

52

What is incubation period?

Incubation: Microbe is replicating but not symptomatic yet

53

What are the three different types of Helminths?

Nematode- roundworm
Cestode - tapeworm
Trematode - fluke

54

What are arthropods (entomology)?

arachnids and insets; ectoparasites

55

____ lives on the host and causes infestation where ___ lives inside the host and causes infection.

Ectoparasite, Endoparasite

56

What is a definitive host?

Harbors adult or sexual stage of the parasite

57

An ____ host harbors larval or asexual stage of the parasite.

Intermediate host

58

What is an incidental host?

Unusual host unnecessary for the maintenance of the parasite in nature.

59

What is acquired immunity?

Conferred by a host's specific immunity response developed as a result of a previous parasitic infection

60

True/False. Parasites don't have a specificity for a particular definitive and intermediate host.

False. They have a specificity and the life cycle can sometimes only be completed within the host

61

What are common routes of parasite entry?

Ingestion
Skin or mucosal penetration
Transplacental (prenatal)
Transmammary (milk)
Arthropod bite (vector)
Sexual contact

62

True/False. Helminths multiply within the host and Protozoa do not multiply within the definitive post.

False. Protozoa multiply in host, Helminths do not multiply in definitive host

63

What are the different ways parasites can cause mechanical tissue damage?

-Blockage of internal organs
-Pressure atrophy
-Migration through tissues

64

What are toxic parasite products?

-Destructive enzymes
-Endotoxins
-Toxic secretions

65

Which of the following is true about the loss of nutrients caused by parasites?

a. Competition with host for nutrients causing a loss of nutrients
b. Interference with nutrient absorption
c. Iron loss
d. All the above are true

d. All the above are true

66

____ response functions in normal host without prior exposure to invading microbes and ____ consist of antibody response and lymphocyte mediate responses.

Innate, Adaptive response

67

T/F. Innate response have immunological memory.

False. Adaptive generate immunological memory

68

Which cell types are involved in the defense against microbes?

Phagocytic
Lymphocytes: B and T cells, Large granular lymphocytes

69

What does the phagosome fuse with in phagocytosis?

Lysosome

70

Innate immune system characteristics

-Pattern recognition receptors (TLR, RLR, complement)
-Missing/ altered self receptors (NK cells)

71

What are characteristics of adaptive immune system?

-Antigen presentation (MHC)
-Antibodies
-T cell receptors

72

What is the function of neutrophils?

-Function to phagocytize and kill extracellular bacteria and yeasts pathogens in acute inflammation

73

What cleans up dead neutrophils?

Macrophages

74

Which cells are an important defense against helminths and increase with type I hypersensitivities?

Eosinophils

75

Which cells increase rapidly in number after viral infection and release perforins and granzymes to kill cells?

NK cells

76

Virus infection-associated ligand are ___ and MHC I molecules are ____.

activating, blocking

77

True/False. Phagocytic cells use pattern recognition receptors for pathogen recognition.

True

78

What is a parasite?

Smaller organism that lives on or in and at the expense of a larger organism called the host

79

What are the three main classes of parasites that can cause disease in humans?

-Helminths
-Ectoparasites
-Protozoa

80

Which of the following is a cyst in the brain that causes epilepsy, blindness, madness, and death?

a. Taenia solium
b. Toxoplasma gondii
c. Toxocara canis
d. Neurocysticercosis

d. Neurocysticercosis

81

What are the three diagnostic methods?

Host Species
Site of Infection
Size of parasite

82

What is the Phylum and Class of a Roundworm?

Phylum Nemathelminthes
Class Nematoda

83

What are the two Classes of Phylum Platyhelminthes?

Class Cestoda (tapeworms)
Class Trematoda (flukes)

84

Which parasite is elongate/cylindrical in shape, has an alimentary canal, separate sexes, and is free-living?

Nematodes

85

What are the characteristics of Cestodes?

-Flat body and no alimentary canal
-Scolex
-Stroblia (body) with progottids
-Hermaphroditic
-Indirect life cycle

86

____ are dorso-ventrally flattened, leaf-like, and have oral and ventral suckers.

Trematodes (flukes)

87

Which Arthropods are considered Insects?

-Flies
-Fleas
-Lice
-Hemiptera

88

Which Arthropods are labeled as arachnids?

-Ticks
-Mites

89

True/False. Adult insets have four pairs of legs, a head, thorax and abdomen section, and antenna.

False. They have THREE pairs of legs

90

How many pairs of legs do nymph and adult arachnids have compared to larvae?

Nymphs and adults = 4 pairs of legs
Larvae = 3 pairs of legs

91

What are the unique characteristics of an arachnid body?

Cephalo-thorax and abdomen
No antennae, but palps

92

____ are unicellular, eukaryotic animals that move via flagella, pseudopodia, gliding movements, and cilia.

Protozoa